AS AQA Rivers- Hard Engineering

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  • Created by: kkwills
  • Created on: 15-05-16 13:05
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  • Rivers: Hard Engineering
    • Dams
      • Dams are huge walls built across rivers. A reservoir is formed behind. Flood water is caught by the dam to prevent flooding downstream and the water is realised steadily throughout the year.
      • Turbines are often built into the dam to help create electricity and people can use the reservoir for recreational activities such as sailing.
      • Steady water release allows the irrigation of land below the dam throughout the year.
      • Down Sides
        • They're very expensive
        • Land is flooded when a reservoir is created- farmland is lost and people are forced to move elsewhere
        • They trap sediment normally carried in rivers. This can cause a dam to fail. It can also cause increased erosion further downstream.
        • Affects wildlife e.g. it may prevent salmon from migrating upstream to breeding grounds.
    • Levees
      • Levees are embankments built along rivers. The river can hold more water so flooding occurs less often
      • They allow the flood plain to be built on
      • Down Sides
        • They're quite expensive to build.
        • There's a severe risk of flooding if the levees are breeched.
    • Channel Staightening
      • Channel straightening is where meanders are removed by building artificial cut-through. This makes the water flow faster, which reduces flooding because water drains downstream more quickly and doesn't build up to a point where a river cannot take it anymore.
      • It takes less time to navigate the river as it has been made shorter.
      • Down Sides
        • Flooding may happen further downstream instead, as water is carried there faster.
        • More erosion is caused downstream because the river flows faster.
        • Altering river channels disturbs wildlife, and habitats.

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