Rivers Overall

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  • Rivers
    • The Drainage Basin
      • This is an area of land drained by a river and its tribuaires
      • There is 1.4 billion cubic kilometres of water  on the earth
        • 97% is stoared in the sea
        • 2% is stoared in the ice caps and glaciers
        • 0.3% is fresh water, on the surface of the earth
      • Characteristics of the Drainage Basin
        • Water shed
        • Source
        • Confluence
        • Main Channel
        • Mouth
        • Tributary
    • Long Profile of a River
      • The side view  of a river
      • Mouth
        • Width
          • Narrow
          • Wide
      • Upper Course
        • River uses weathering+ erosion downwards in the hills
          • Forms a V-Shaped Vally
        • Middle Course
          • River starts to meander, cutting from side to side to erode the vally
            • Some erosion at river clifs. Flood plain starts to foem
      • Source
        • Width
          • Narrow
          • Wide
      • Discharge
        • Amount of water passing a particular point and a particular time in a river
          • Usually measured in cubic metres of water per second
            • Cross Sectional Area  X Velocity  = Discharge
              • m2 X m/sec = m3/sec
      • Load
        • Material that a river is carrying
          • Material that has mostly been eroded from the river bed/banks
            • Size can range from tiny pieces of sediment up to huge bolders
              • Faster the Velocity (and discharge) of a particular river, the more load that can be carried
                • In flood conditions, huge lumps of material can be transported through the River System
    • River Processes
      • Is something that happens in a river. They work to modify the River's shape
      • 1.Erosion
        • The 4 Main Forms of River Erosion
          • Attrition
            • Rocks being carried by the river smash together and break into smaller smoother and rounder particles
          • Abraision
            • Rocks carried along by the river, wear down the River Bed and Banks
              • By the rocks rubbing against each other causing them to become smotther and smaller
          • Hydraulic  Action
            • The force of the river against the banks can cause air to be trapped in cracks and crevices.
              • Te pressure weakens the banks and gradually wears it away and break off
          • Solution
            • Soluable particles are dissolved into the river
      • 2.Transport
        • The 4 Different River Transport Processes
          • Traction
            • Large boulders and rocks are rolled along the River Bed
          • Saltatiion
            • Small pebblesnand stones are bounced along the River Bed
          • Suspension
            • Fine light material is held up in the flow of the River
              • Has no contact with the River Bed
          • Solution
            • Minerals are held up in the solution of water
      • 3.Deposition Processes
        • When the River Load is too heavy for the river to carry and is dumped/ deposited along the course of the river
          • The river drops the heaviest load firstt because the river doesn't have enough energy to keep going
            • it will be eaiser to continue by dropping the heaviest and to keep going with the lightest
              • Might be because the river is slowing down
        • To find erosion in  river you look at the River Cliff
          • Gives evidence of lateral/ sideways erosion and undercutting of the River Cliff
  • Water Cycle/ Hydological Cycle
    • It is a closed system
    • Natural system where water is constantly moving above, on or below the earth
    • Split into 4 sections;
      • Inputs
        • When water is introduced/put into the system
      • Stores
        • When water is kept within the systemand is not moved through it
      • Transfers
        • Processes/ flows within the system where water is moved from one place to another
      • Outputs
        • When water is carried through the river and back inti the sea, (also occurs in the river system)
    • Pearmeable
      • Eg. Soil
      • Impermeable
        • Eg. Concrete
    • Impermeable
      • Eg. Concrete
    • Rivers
      • The Drainage Basin
        • This is an area of land drained by a river and its tribuaires
        • There is 1.4 billion cubic kilometres of water  on the earth
          • 97% is stoared in the sea
          • 2% is stoared in the ice caps and glaciers
          • 0.3% is fresh water, on the surface of the earth
        • Characteristics of the Drainage Basin
          • Water shed
          • Source
          • Confluence
          • Main Channel
          • Mouth
          • Tributary
      • Long Profile of a River
        • The side view  of a river
        • Mouth
          • Upper Course
            • River uses weathering+ erosion downwards in the hills
              • Forms a V-Shaped Vally
            • Middle Course
              • River starts to meander, cutting from side to side to erode the vally
                • Some erosion at river clifs. Flood plain starts to foem
          • Source
            • Discharge
              • Amount of water passing a particular point and a particular time in a river
                • Usually measured in cubic metres of water per second
                  • Cross Sectional Area  X Velocity  = Discharge
                    • m2 X m/sec = m3/sec
            • Load
              • Material that a river is carrying
                • Material that has mostly been eroded from the river bed/banks
                  • Size can range from tiny pieces of sediment up to huge bolders
                    • Faster the Velocity (and discharge) of a particular river, the more load that can be carried
                      • In flood conditions, huge lumps of material can be transported through the River System
          • River Processes
            • Is something that happens in a river. They work to modify the River's shape
            • 1.Erosion
              • The 4 Main Forms of River Erosion
                • Attrition
                  • Rocks being carried by the river smash together and break into smaller smoother and rounder particles
                • Abraision
                  • Rocks carried along by the river, wear down the River Bed and Banks
                    • By the rocks rubbing against each other causing them to become smotther and smaller
                • Hydraulic  Action
                  • The force of the river against the banks can cause air to be trapped in cracks and crevices.
                    • Te pressure weakens the banks and gradually wears it away and break off
                • Solution
                  • Soluable particles are dissolved into the river
            • 2.Transport
              • The 4 Different River Transport Processes
                • Traction
                  • Large boulders and rocks are rolled along the River Bed
                • Saltatiion
                  • Small pebblesnand stones are bounced along the River Bed
                • Suspension
                  • Fine light material is held up in the flow of the River
                    • Has no contact with the River Bed
                • Solution
                  • Minerals are held up in the solution of water
            • 3.Deposition Processes
              • When the River Load is too heavy for the river to carry and is dumped/ deposited along the course of the river
                • The river drops the heaviest load firstt because the river doesn't have enough energy to keep going
                  • it will be eaiser to continue by dropping the heaviest and to keep going with the lightest
                    • Might be because the river is slowing down
              • To find erosion in  river you look at the River Cliff
                • Gives evidence of lateral/ sideways erosion and undercutting of the River Cliff

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