Risks Factors of addiction - Stress and Peers

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  • Risk Factors For Addiction
    • Peers
      • Peer pressure - reason why adolescents start taking drugs or smoking and associated with increased levels of smoking
      • Social learning theory - behaviours are learned through the observation of others and subsequent modelling of this behaviour
      • Social identity theory - individuals adopt norms and behaviours that are central to the social identity of the group to which they belong
      • SLT - research support eg exposure to peer models increases likelihood that teenagers begin smoking; social status and  popularity  instrumental in adolescents' smoking behaviour
      • SIT - evidence supports claim that adolescents motivated to begin smoking because of the peer stereotypes they hold but little known about extent to which these groups influence members to smoke
    • Stress
      • Everyday stress - addiction associated with relieving anxiety. Stressors contribute to initiation and continuation of addictions, and to relapse
      • Traumatic stress - people exposed to severe stress more vulnerable to addiction. PTSD also linked to addiction
      • Addiction may sometimes reduce stress, eg smoking but this tends to be temporary
      • Stress may create vulnerability in some but not all people. Cloniger suggested stress explains vulnerability in tyoe 1 but not type 2 alcoholics


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