Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases

  • Created by: India.02
  • Created on: 12-05-19 13:43
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  • Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases
    • Identification by Correlation
      • Correlation doesn't mean cause - some risk factors aren't capable of directly causing a disease, but are related to another risk factor that is
      • Lack of exercise and a high fat diet are heavily linked to an increased chance of cardiovascular disease - can't cause it directly - high blood pressure and high LDL cholesterol levels that can actually cause it
    • Direct Causes
      • Smoking - cardiovascular disease, lung disease and lung cancer - damages walls of arteries and cells in the lining of the lungs
      • Obesity - type 2 diabetes - makes body less sensitive or resistant to insulin - struggles to control glucose in blood
      • Drinking too much Alcohol - liver disease - liver breaks down alcohol but reaction can damage cells - may also be damaged hen toxic chemicals leak from gut due to damage to intestines caused by alcohol - affects brain function too - damage nerve cells causing brain to lose volume
      • Smoking when Pregnant - reduces amount of oxygen the baby receives in the womb - health problems for unborn baby - alcohol has similar effects - damage baby's cells, which affects development
      • Exposure to Certain Substances or Radiation - cancer caused by carcinogens - work in different ways - some damage a cells DNA in a way that makes the cell more likely to divide uncontrollably- ionising radiation is a carcinogen
    • Increased Risk of Disease
      • Risk factors are linked to an increased likelihood that someone will get the disease - not guaranteed that someone will get it - often aspects of someones lifestyle
      • Can also be the presence of certain substances in the environment (air pollution) or substances in your body (asbestos fibres - used in building until it was realised that the fibres can build up in your airways and cause disease, like cancer, later in life)
      • Many non-communicable diseases are caused by several different risk factors, interacting with each other, rather than one acting on it's own
      • Lifestyle factors can have different impacts locally, nationally and globally
        • In developed countries, non-communicable diseases are more common as people have a higher income and can buy high-fat food
        • People from deprived areas - more likely to smoke and have a poor diet with no exercise - incidence of cardiovascular disease, obesity and type 2 diabetes is higher in those areas

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