Rio de Janeiro challenges and solutions

View mindmap
  • Rio de Janeiro Economic and social challenges and solutions
    • Social
      • Health care
        • Challenges
          • only 74% of pregnant women receive medical care
          • life expectancy is 63
          • only 55% of families have a local clinic
        • Solutions
          • have doctors carry out home checks
          • health kits that are able to detect and treat 20 illnesses
      • Education
        • Challenges
          • many children drop out of school before 14 and turn to crime
          • shortage of local schools
          • children need to work to earn money
          • shortage of teachers
            • poor training
            • low pay
        • Solutions
          • encourage locals to volunteer
          • giving grants to poor families to help cover education costs
          • open a private university so they get a better education
      • Water supply
        • Challenges
          • 12% don't have access to running water
          • 37% of water is lost through leaking pipes, fraud and illegal access
        • Solutions
          • improve quantity and quality of water
          • 7 new treatment plants
          • 300 km of new pipes laid
      • Energy
        • Challenges
          • frequent blackouts due to shortages
          • many poor people illegally get their electricity which is unsafe
        • Solutions
          • 60km new power lines
          • new nuclear generator
          • new Simplicio hydro-electric complex to increase supply by 30%
            • took 6 years to build
            • cost $2 billion
    • Economic
      • Crime
        • pacifying favelas means the police take control
          • 31 favelas have been pacified
            • makes people feel attacked and losing their freedom
            • lower crime rate
            • increased property valiues
            • increased tourism
        • 20 in 1,000 murdered compared to 3.7 in uk
      • Unemployment
        • 20% in favelas
        • 3.5 million work in informal economy
          • poorly paid  and irregular
          • no insurance and don't pay tax
    • Environmental
      • Traffic congestion
        • Challenges
          • causes 5,000 deaths via air pollution a year
          • steep mountains require tunnels otherwise roads get congested
          • 40% more cars in last decade
          • crime makes people want to travel by car
        • Solutions
          • expand metro system
          • new toll roads in city centre
          • make roads one-way to improve traffic flow
      • Waste pollution
        • Challenges
          • worst in favelas where few roads means collection is hard
          • most waste is dumped and pollutes water
            • diseases eg cholera
            • encourages rats
        • Solutions
          • power plant set up to use methane from rotting rubbish
            • consumes 30 tonnes daily
            • powers 1,000 homes
      • Water pollution
        • Challenges
          • commercial fishing declined by 90%
          • beaches are too damaged leads to less tourism
          • 55 heavily polluted rivers
            • from sewers
              • 200 tonnes into the bay
          • oil spills and ships empty fuel tanks
        • Solutions
          • 12 new sewage works
            • $68 million
          • ships fined for illegal fuel discharge
          • 5km of new sewage pipes in highly populated areas
    • Squatter settlements/ Favelas
      • houses are poorly and illegally constructed
        • often on steep slopes which lead to landslides in rain storms
      • many people aren't connected to services so must either go a long way or acquire them illegally
        • 12% without running water
        • 30% have no electricity
        • 50% have no sewage connection
      • lots of crime and police are violent and corrupt
      • poor health due to lack of doctors and build up of rubbish causing disease
      • lots of unemployment and average income is less than £75 a monthg
      • favela bairro project improves favelas

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Urban environments resources »