Rio de Janeiro

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  • Created by: jimony
  • Created on: 03-10-18 11:39
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  • RIO
    • Factors
      • Pull
        • Better schools and hospitals
        • Better transport and comunication
        • Better housing and services
        • Job opportunities
        • Better social life
        • Higher wages
      • Push
        • Few job opportunities
        • Low wages
        • Difficult and unprofitable farming
        • No land ownership
        • Natural hazards
        • Sense of isolation
    • Challenges
      • Environmental
        • Urban sprawl - this is an issue as the city continues to grow rapidly, encroaching on surrounding rural (countryside) areas.
        • Pollution - from traffic congestion in the city centre, and from industrial zones. Litter is an issue on the beaches.
        • Waste disposal - a particular problem in the favelas, where there is no organised sewage or waste recovery systems.
      • Economical
        • Poverty - there is a massive gap between rich and poor citizens in Rio. Many wealthy people live close to the central business district - right next to the favelas.
        • Employment - there are few job opportunities in the favelas. Poor transport systems make it hard for residents in the favelas to travel to work.
    • Opportunites
      • Environmental
        • Beaches - the iconic and crowded beaches of Copacabana, Ipanema and Leblon face the Atlantic and are flanked by mountains in the background.
        • Urban forests - the Tijuca National Park and White Rock Forests are two of the largest urban forests in the world.
      • Economical
        • Sport - football is the national sport in Brazil, and major global sporting events take place here.
        • Tourism - Rio is one of the most visited cities in the southern hemisphere. Major attractions include the beaches (eg Copacabana and Ipanema), the statue of Christ the Redeemer (on Corcovado peak), and Sugar Loaf Mountain.#
        • Industry - Rio is a major trading port, with important oil refining and ship-building industries. The main exports from Rio are crude petroleum and semi-finished iron and steel products. Headquarters of major industries are located here, including Petrobras (energy company), Vale (mining company) and Grupo Globa (telecommunications). Favelas create their own economies, and recent improvements have allowed shops and restaurants to develop.
      • Social
        • Community - the favelas demonstrate tremendous community spirit, co-operation and recycling of materials.
        • Education - Rio has a number of universities and higher education institutions. It is the second largest centre for research and development in the country.
        • Culture - Rio is famous for its annual carnival, samba schools, and sporting events. The Maracanas Stadium is one of the largest football stadiums in the world. The football World Cup was hosted there in 2014, and the Olympic Games were held there in 2016.
        • Ethnic and cultural diversity - providing a huge mix of different religions, foods and customs. 51 per cent of Rio's population is white, 36 per cent is multi-racial, 12 per cent is black, 1 per cent Asian, and 0.1 per cent Amerindian.
    • inprovments
      • Self-help schemes have also been supported. Here, local residents are provided with building materials like concrete blocks and cement in order to replace home-made shelters with permanent dwellings. These are often three or four storeys high, and with water, electricity and sewage systems installed.
      • Legal rights such as granting the favela residents rights to own their own properties. Low rents have also been offered.
      • Law and order has been improved in the favelas by trying to rid these areas of crime and drug abuse. Several large favelas have been improved in this way through federal 'Pacification Programmes'.
      • Transport systems have been extended to include the favelas to give residents the opportunity to travel to work in the city centre and industrial areas.
      • New towns like Barra da Tijuca, built 20 kilometres along the coastline, have been built to relocate some residents from city favelas.

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