rings, acids and amines

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  • Created by: Harriet
  • Created on: 31-01-16 19:50
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  • Rings,Acids and Amines part 2
    • Carboxylic Acids
      • polar molecules
        • very soluble in water as they form hydrogen bonds with the water molecules
      • weak acids
        • dissociate easily in water to form carboxylate ions and H+ ions
      • carboxylic acids react with the more reactive metals to form and salt and hydrogen
      • carboxylic acids react with carbonates to form a salt, water and carbon dioxide
      • Carboxylic acids are neutralised by bases to form salts and water
    • esters
      • alcohols are drawn second but named first
      • carboxylic acids are drawn first but named second
      • making esters
        • carboxylic acids + alcohol= ester +water
          • conditions: concentrated sulphuric acid
        • acid anhydride +alcohol =ester+ carboxylic acid
          • Conditions: no catalyst
      • uses
        • food flavourings and perfumes
      • Acid hydrolysis splits the ester into carboxylic acid and an alcohol.
        • conditions: reflux and a dilute sulphuric acid
      • base Hydrolysis splits the ester into a carboxylate salt and alcohol
        • conditions: reflux and dilute sodium hydroxide
    • Fatty Acids
      • Saturated fatty acids
        • no double bond
        • NAMING anoic acid
        • cause bad cholesterol
          • bad cholesterol can clog blood vessels which increases the risk of a heart attack
      • unsaturated fatty acids
        • double bonds
        • NAMING enoic acid
        • cis configuration
          • naturally occuring
            • good cholesterol
              • removes bad cholesterol, taking it to the liver to be destroyed. high levels of good cholesterol prevent heart disease
        • trans configuration
          • man made through hydrogenation
            • bad cholesterol
      • triglycerides
        • triester of glycerol + 3 fatty acids = triglyceride +3 waters
        • triglyceride + methanol + glycerol +methyl ester
          • methyl ester = biodeisel
            • biodeisel is a renewable fuel made from fats that can be used in diesel engines
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