rings, acids and amines

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  • Created by: Harriet
  • Created on: 13-03-15 18:05
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  • Rings, Acids and Amines
    • benzene
      • kekule structure WRONG
        • if it was correct the three bonds with the length of C-C and three bonds with the length C=C
      • all the carbon bonds have the same length
        • Delocalised Model RIGHT
          • states that the p-orbitals of all six carbon atoms overlap to create pi-bonds
            • creates two ring shaped clouds of electrons-one above and one below
          • enthalpy changes give evidence for delocalisation
      • aromatic compounds are derived from benzene
    • alkenes usually like addition reactions but not benzene
      • the delocalised structure of benzene means it is very stable and the negative charge is spread out, so benzene is unwilling to undergo addition reactions
    • Arenes undergo electrophilic substitution
      • halogenation
        • Br-Br is the electrophile
          • AlCl3 acts as a halogen carrier
      • nitration
        • when you warm benzene with concentrated nitric and sulphuric acid you get nitrobenzene
        • sulphuric acid works as a catalyst
        • temperature below 55
    • phenols
      • phenols react with bases and sodium to form salts
      • phenols react with bromine water
      • uses
        • antiseptic
        • polymers Kevlar
    • aldehydes
      • oxidised from primary alcohols using potassium dichromate
        • aldehydes reflux to carboxylic acids
      • ketones
        • oxidised from secondary alcohols using potassium dichromate
    • reduction of aldehydes and ketones using [H]
      • Untitled
    • bradys Reagent
      • test for carbonyl group
      • 2,4 dinitrophenylhydrazine
        • forms a bright orange ppt
      • Tollens Reagent
        • test for aldehyde
        • silver nitrate  dissolved in aqueous ammonia
          • Untitled


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