Right to a child - no theories included.

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  • RIGHT TO A CHILD
    • ISSUES
      • SPARE EMBRYO PROBLEM
        • What is the moral status of he fertilized embryos that are not planted into the woman?
          • When does a collection become a person? Personhood.
            • Should human fertilized eggs be treated as eggs in a supermarket - objects?
              • Tooley and Singer argue potentiality of embryo and not actuality. Therefore not person.
        • Embryos can be frozen, used elsewhere or destroyed after 14 days.
      • DONOR FATHER PROBLEM
        • What is the moral status of the biological father that is not a partner of the mother?
          • It's illegal in the UK to pay for sperm and legal elsewhere..
        • Also, after 2005, the child can meet dad once 18. The right to know. Donor can refuse as has no legal responsibility. The right to know = psychological harm.
      • ISSUE OF MULTIPLE BIRTHS
        • Low success rate of IVF means multiple embryos are planted - often leading to multiple births. This results in health risks or financial strain.
      • AGE AND SEXUALITY OF PARENT TO BE
        • In the UK you must be under 50 to receive IVF treatment. There is no limit in other countries: this is arguably not in the best interests of the child.
        • In 2009 UK, lesbian couples can receive IVF - no need for father is deemed supportive parents.
      • SURROGATE MOTHER DILEMMA
        • An emotional bond is created with foetus only to be given away - emotional trauma?
        • Who has duty of care? Surrogate or biological parents?
        • Gay couples can have a surrogate as of 2010.
      • MONEY FOR BABIES PROBLEM
        • Is it morally right to pay a surrogate? Illegal in UK. Legal in USA. Fabre argues it is no different than prostitution and has no problem with payment - ethical.
      • COST ON THE NHS
        • Welfare cost vs benefit argument.
          • Is it justifiable to spend money on fertility despite financial strain on NHS?
            • Fertility treatment can lead to post natal depression, complications etc. This is further costs.
    • CONTEXT
      • Infertility can be primary [never conceived] or secondary [can't conceive anymore.]
        • Alternatives are; IVF, adoption or surrogacy.
          • 1978: Louise Brown. First born ever test tube [ivf] baby.
            • VIEWS
              • Freedom of choice.
              • Naturalistic fallacy. Just because you want to be a mother, does not mean you can or should be.
              • Liberty: IVF or surrogacy is not a right but a privilege - a desire.
              • Extent of right. It is not available for everyone - e.g. poor, elderly, homosexuals universally [the universability principle.] Therefore it is not a universal right.
          • IVF is roughly $5000 in the US per attempt and only one in four are successful.
        • 1/6 couples can't conceive.

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