Richard and England.

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  • Richard and the governing of England.
      • Absent King, is only in England for 6 months.
        • enables threats from John and Phillip to strengthen as he is not on top of goings on. and weakens royal authority.
      • Drained resources form his territories.
        • Set up Saladin tithe, sold sheriffdoms and other offices to pay for the crusade.
        • R's capture meant a sum of 150,000 marks had to be raised.
          • England was also given as a fief.
        • sold crown lands to help raise money.
          • Weakens royal authority as although gain instant revenue, loose long term income and reach of control.
      • Appointed others to oversea England ion his absence.
        • With power in the hands of multiple people who all had different adgendas governing was harder.
          • William Longchamp pays £3,000 for office of Chancellor, is named papal legate and co justiciars (meaning in the kings absence he and hugh can act with authority of the king)..
            • 'shambolic'-D.Carpenter.
            • Govt. fell apart in 1191.
            • Conflicts with John.
              • Lead to him fleeing the country to Dover.
            • William of Newburgh claimed that Longchamp was "an obscure foreigner of unproven ability and loyalty".
        • However after Longchamp appointments are better: ie Hubert Walter is named Archbishop of Canterbury and Chief Justiciar and raises the ransom for Richard and finances after this point.
          • Hubert was an excellent administrator sending out highly professional itinerant justiciars.
            • After bad appointments, pouts England in the hands for Eleanor and Walter.
              • Govt. runs smoothly.
                • Generate the ransom needed for Richard through a 25% tax.
                • Resist Johns rebellion.
              • However after Longchamp appointments are better: ie Hubert Walter is named Archbishop of Canterbury and Chief Justiciar and raises the ransom for Richard and finances after this point.
                • Hubert was an excellent administrator sending out highly professional itinerant justiciars.
                  • After bad appointments, pouts England in the hands for Eleanor and Walter.
                    • Govt. runs smoothly.
                      • Generate the ransom needed for Richard through a 25% tax.
                      • Resist Johns rebellion.
                  • Assize of Weights 1197
                  • 10% customs tax.
                  • Improves efficiency of legal system by introducing a systematic system and recording it.
                    • Plea rolls, Coroners rolls, financial concords.~
            • Assize of Weights 1197
            • 10% customs tax.
            • Improves efficiency of legal system by introducing a systematic system and recording it.
              • Plea rolls, Coroners rolls, financial concords.~
      • Richard marginalized Johns power, giving him little responsibility, and had previously refuse to give him Normandy.
        • Reason for Johns treachery as he thirsts for more power.
          • Large reason for the weakness in English power as if John had sided with Phillip in 1192 then enlgand would have beem under threat.
          • However did give John land, titles and a wife.
      • Preps very well to leave for crusade.
        • Sustainable tax: Saladin Tithe, 10% tax on revenues or movable properties.
          • Raised 100,000 silver marks.
          • Seen as a very harsh tax.
        • Made sure his territories would not be attacked.
          • Made oaths of neutrality with the welsh and Scottish.
          • Quit-claims
          • Quasi- peace with Phillip: Richard gives him some land and promises to marry his sister.
      • Crusade was greatly supported, respected and admired in England. impressive to have such a victorious monarch.

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