War and Revolution

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  • Revolution
    • 1905 revolution (Jan - Oct)
      • Forced introduction of extensive reforms; October manifesto and fundamental laws
        • Introduction of civil rights; free citizenship, freedom of person
      • Cause by loss of Russo - Japanese war, Blood Sunday and social and political discontent
        • A series of strikes broke out across the country
          • Ranging from student riots to terrorist assassination
        • A mutiny broke out amongst the sailors on the battleship Potemkin
    • Feb 1917 revolution
      • Began with an international women's day march which workers who were angered by food rations decided to mutiny with
        • Lasted 8 days involving mass demonstrations and violent armed clashes
          • Army forces even sided with the reolutionaries
            • Over 1300 people were killed
      • Caused by the military defeats of  WW1, weakness of Nicholas' leadership, inflammation, food shortages
      • Nicholas was forced to abdicate and a Provisional Government was formed to take over
        • Replaced  autocracy as the PG ruled on liberal lines
      • Caused a lift of censorship, release of political prisoners, freedom of speech and renewed hope
    • October 1917 revolution
      • Members of the soviet, especially the Bolsheviks were increasingly frustrated with the PG
        • Influenced by economic grievances and continues participation in the war
      • Bolsheviks staged a nearly bloodless coup occupying government buildings, telephone points and other strategic areas
        • Kerensky didn't take precautions and fled Petrograd
          • Winter palace was surrounded and Lenin issued a proclamation that the PG were being overthrown
      • Led to the introduction of the dictatorship of the proletariat envisaged by Lenin
        • The Second  All - Russian Congress of Soviets gave the Bolsheviks the mandate to rule
      • First successful  uprising which overthrew government and completely changed ideology

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