Geography Earthquakes/Fold Mountains/Ocean Trenches

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  • Restless Earth
    • Fold Mountains
      • USES OF FOLD MNT   SPORTS -  such as skiing in resorts such as Chamonix. FARMING - Farmers farm on terraces and grow crops, coffee and cotton. TORUISM- Tourists visit natural adaptations e.g volcanoes, mnt peaks and lakes. MINING - Mining includes Gold, Tin, Nickel. Most of the land is destroyed.  HYDROELCTRIC POWER (HEP) - steep slopes and glacial melt water are ideal for generating HEP. Hydroelectric accounts for 60 per cent of Switzerland's electricity production.
      • FORMATION OF FOLD MNTS.  Fold mnts are formed when two plates move together (a compressional plate margin). This can be where two continental plates move towards each other or a continental and an oceanic plate. The movement of the two plates forces sedimentary rocks upwards into a series of folds.
      • DESCRIPTION - Young fold mnts (in the last 65 million years) are the highest areas in the world. These include the Himalayas, the rockies, the andes and the alps.
    • Ocean Trenches
      • OCEAN TRENCH are the deepest parts of the ocean. They are also called submarine .An ocean trench is a long, deep depression in the ocean floor. Some trenches are near continental boundries. Others are found near chains of volcanic islands, often called volcanic arcs. Trenches are formed as a result of plate tectonics, or the movement of the Earth’s crust. Tectonic plates slip underneath each other in a process known as subduction. Example - Mariana Trench.
    • Earthquakes
      • KOBE MEDC CASE STUDY - Earthquake occured on 17th June 1995. JPN lies on pacific ring of fire = active area of tectonic activity. Every year JPN has 2000 earthquakes. It measured 7.2 on the richter scale
        • EFFECTS OF KOBE E'QUAKE - 4,569 deaths, 40,000 injured. Estimated damage - £80 million. 82 % of schools were destroyed. 350,000 people lost their homes and 190,000 buildings destroyed. 90 % of the port was destroyed. 12 % of the industry was destroyed.
          • RESPONSES TO KOBE E'QUAKE - fire service tried to put out fires. Volunteers dug the rubble to rescue survivors. the army arrived 3 days later to help clean up and also look for survivors. New buildings were built and they are spaced further apart. Rubber blocks placed underneath the bridges in Kobe.
        • CAUSES OF KOBE E'QUAKE - subduction destructive plate boundary
      • An earthquake is the shaking and vibration of the Earth's crust due to movement of the Earth's plates (plate tectonics). Earthquakes can happen along any type of plate boundary.
        • The point inside the crust where the pressure is released is called the focus. The point on the Earth's surface above the focus is called the epicentre. Earthquake energy is released in seismic waves. These waves spread out from the focus. The waves are felt most strongly at the epicentre, becoming less strong as they travel further away.


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