Restless Earth

This mindmap contains the informations and some case studies for the GCSE Edexcel Geography Restless Earth Topic.

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  • Created by: Lauren
  • Created on: 20-03-13 15:37
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  • Restless Earth
    • Inside the Earth
      • Planet Earth is made up of 4 layers. The crust, mantle, outer core and inner core.
        • The crust is made up of rock and sits on top of the mantle. It is separated into different sections called tectonic plates, as they move freely.
          • Continental crust is very thin and is mainly made up of granite, which has a low density.
          • Oceanic crust is even thinner than continental crust, but is made up of a denser material called basalt.
        • The second layer is the mantle which is thought to be a solid. Convection currents, caused by heated gas from the outer core, moves the tectonic plates above.
        • The third layer is the outer core, which is molten rock.
        • The final layer is the inner core, which is supposedly a solid ball of iron and nickel.
    • Plate Boundries
      • Conservative
        • When the two plates rub against each other.
          • This leads to earthquakes, as their jagged edges lock together and burst apart suddenly.
            • Case Study: San Andres Fault
      • Constructive
        • When two plates seperate
          • There are small earthquakes here.
          • Volcanoes also happen here, as rising basalt lava fills the gap, causing a shield volcano.
            • Shield volcanoes are the less violent.
            • Case Study: Iceland
      • Destructive
        • When one continental and one oceanic plate collide.
          • During this process, the denser oceanic plate slides beneath the less dense continental plate.
            • This creates earthquakes, during which a tsunami can form.
            • They also create very destructive composite volcanoes.
            • Case Study: Andes Mountains
      • Collision
        • When two continental plates collide.
          • Earthquakes happen here, sometimes causing landslides.
          • They rarely form volcanoes, but do create fold mountains, as the plates buckle under the pressure.
          • Case Study: Himilayers
    • Volcanoes
      • Types of volcanoes
        • Shield Volcanoes
          • They have basaltic lava (very fluid)
          • Violent eruptions are rare
          • The most common is lava fountains, which feed lava flows.
          • Case Study: Mauna Loa, Hawaii
        • Composite Volcanoes
          • They have sticky, andesitic lava.
            • Blocking the vents and causing violent eruptions
          • They are prone to large explosions of ash and rocks.
          • They have the power to affect the temperature of the planet on a global scale.
          • Case Study: Mt Pinatubo, Philippines
      • Volcanoes Statues
        • Active-when a volcano is currently erupting
        • Dormant-when it hasn't erupted for a long time, but the possibility is still there
        • Extinct-when it no longer erupts
      • Volcanoes in the Developed World
        • Can afford to equipment that can predict an eruption
        • Evacuation messages can be sent out and routes set more clearly
        • The people have insurance and the government can afford to help
        • Case Study: Japan since 1950's Erupts 200 times per year. Monitors volcano. Locals insured, government will help to rebuild. 40% of land surrounding volcano is fertile due to ash.
      • Volcanoes in the Developing world
        • Can't afford safe housing or insurance
        • Communications for evacuations are poor
        • Live is risky locations du to good farming land
        • Case Study: Republic of Congo, January 2002. 14 Villages destroyed. 100 dead. 400,000 evacuated. United Nations and Oxfam sent 260 tonnes of food. $35 million raised globally.
    • Earthquakes
      • In the Developed world
        • They cannot be predicted, even in richer countries
        • They are measured on their magnitude (Richter Scale) using a seisometer
        • Long term planning such as: earthquake drills, emergency services specially trained, kits at home, stronger housing foundations
        • Case Study: Japan, July 2007. 6.8 earthquake. 350 buildings destroyed. 11 deaths. Earthquake drills, emergency services specially trained, people had emergency kits in their homes.
      • Earthquakes in the Developing world
        • They don't have finances for monitoring equipment
        • Have difficulty putting evacuation plans in place
        • Often rely on international support and aid
        • Case Study: China, May 2008. Primary: 70,000 people killed. 5 million made homeless. Local responses include 50,000 soldiers and $5 billion raised in aid. International aid include funding, tents and medicine.


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