respiratory diseases

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  • respiratory and animal disease
    • airborne transmission
      • respiratory pathogens
      • aerosols generated during speaking, sneezing, coughing
      • can be indirect or direct transmission
      • droplet can carry 100.000 bacteria
      • bacterial disease
        • tuberculosis: myobacterium tuberculosis
        • leprosy: myobacterium leprae
        • sore throats: streptococcus pyogenes
        • whooping cough: bordetella pertussis
      • viral disease
        • influenza
        • common cold: rhino
        • measles
        • mumps
    • Tuberculosis
      • mainly affects lungs
      • can cause meningitis
      • living conditions, vaccine, antibiotics decreased cases
      • found in major cities
      • people at risk
        • close contacts of a case
        • those that have lived in TB common areas
        • immune systems weakened
        • chronic poor health (lifestyle)
        • elderly and young
      • contraction
        • may resolve itself
        • active TB may appear
        • may be asymptomatic
          • may become active in later life
      • symptoms
        • coughing
        • tiredness
        • loss of appetite/weight
        • night sweats
      • diagnosed using skin test against myobacteria
    • staphyloccus aureus
      • very common bacterium
      • treated with antibiotics
      • can cause diseases with pus e.g. boils
      • Toxic shock syndrome
        • 1 in 4 die
    • Common Cold
      • rhino virus most common
      • over 115 serotypes of rhino, so impossible to vaccinate
    • influenza
      • influenza A
      • very serious
      • seasonal
      • influenza A is avain flu that has crossed to humans
      • single stranded RNA in 8 segments
      • lipoprotein envelope
        • 2 proteins protuding
          • haemagglutnin
          • neuraminidase
      • lysogenic cycle
    • avian flu adaptation
      • coinfection of avian and human strains
        • genome swapped between
      • mutation in genome
    • zoonoses
      • transmission
        • direct
          • human to animal contact
        • indirect
          • intermediate vector e.g. tick, flea
      • the plague
        • yersinia pestis
        • gram negative bacterium
        • faculatively anaerobic
        • rod shaped
        • carried by gophers and prairie dogs today
        • infection cycle
          • wild reservoir
          • domestic reservoir
            • causes fatal disease in animal
            • urban cycle
            • fleas need many hosts due to deaths
        • bubonic plague
          • most bacterium killed at bite by neutropjils
          • those taken by macrophages can still be virulant
          • bacteria kill macrophage and are resistant
          • spread to lymph nodes
            • more replication and killing of macrophages
        • pneumonic plague
          • inavasion may stop at lymph nodes
          • spills into blood
          • endotoxin results in septic shock
          • reaches lungs where can be spread
        • streptomycin or tetracycline
      • Malaria
        • carried by members of the family plasmodium
        • fever, stiffness, abnormal breathing
        • life cycle
          • sporozoites in salivary gland of mosquito enter bloodstream
          • travel to liver where enter parenchymal cells
          • exoerythrocytic stage begins
          • replicates and enlarges (schizont stage)
          • schizont separates into merozoites
          • erythrocytic stage
            • merozoites infect other blood cells
      • Rabies
        • rhabdovirus
  • transmitted animal to animal via biological transmission
    • wild reservoir

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