respiritory system

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  • respiratory system
    • nasal cavity
      • main route of air entry to the blood
        • lined with ciliated epithelial cells
          • contain mucus creating cells
      • function
        • warm, filter and clean the air
    • larynx
      • produces vocal sounds as air passes over the vocal cords
      • function
        • large role in speech
        • ensures food passes into the oesophagus and not trachea
    • trachea
      • muscular tube with cartilage rings around it
      • function
        • allows flexability
        • passage for air to be passed to the bronchi
    • bronchi
      • main passageway for air to the lungs
        • cartilage rings present in the bronchi
      • function
        • control air entry
        • through contraction and relaxation of muscle walls
        • regulates speed and volume of air flow in the lungs
    • bronchioles
      • passage from the bronchi
        • allows air to be passed
      • no cartilage
        • would interrupt with flexability
      • function
        • control air entry
        • through contraction and relaxation of muscle walls
        • regulates speed and volume of airflow
    • pleural membranes
      • closed sac of plural fluid
      • layer on the surface of the lung
      • layer on the internal surface of the ribcage
      • function
        • prevents friction during breathing
          • allows the lungs to glide
    • lungs
      • main organs of the respiratory system
      • function
        • transport oxygen from the air to the blood
        • removes carbon dioxide from the blood
    • alveoli
      • tiny air chambers
      • at the end of each bronchiole
      • walls are one cell thick
      • surface covered in capillaries
      • function
        • allows gaseous exchange to take place
    • diaphragm
      • a large dome shaped sheet of muscle
      • encloses the lower surface of the chest cavitiy
      • function
        • separates lungs from the rest of the body
        • supports inspiration and expiration
    • intercostal muscles
      • occupy the spaces between the 12 pairs of ribs
      • function
        • their contraction allow chest expansion for breathing

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