asthma

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  • respiratory malfunctions:      asthma
    • inflamed bronchi linings
      • starts to swell
    • irritates the airways
      • an asthma trigger
    • muscles around the airways tighten
      • airways become narrower
    • sticky mucus builds up
      • narrowing airways further
    • difficulty breathing
      • leads to symptoms of asthma
        • coughing
        • wheezing
        • shortness of breath
        • tightness in chest
    • causes
      • genetic
        • genetic variation in over a third of children with asthma
        • default in the lining of the airways
        • concentrating on the genes could lead to new treatment
        • genetic testing
      • lifestyle
        • exercise
          • can be a trigger
          • should increase fitness gradually
        • diet
          • certain foods can make symptoms worse
            • eggs
            • fish
            • yeast products
        • smoking
          • can irritate lungs
          • increased risk of asthma attack
          • permanently damage airways
        • pollutants
          • car exhaust fumes
          • particles in the atmosphere
          • irritates airways
    • diagnostic techniques
      • chest x ray
        • performed for patients who wheeze
        • done to make sure there isn't another condition
      • peak flow monitoring
        • see how well the asthma is doing
        • measures how quickly air can be blown out the lungs
        • if bad peak flow values drop
      • spirometry
        • measures how much and how quickly air comes out lungs
        • volume of air breathed out in one second
        • total amount of air breathed out
        • compared with normal measurements for persons age
    • effects
      • coughing, tight chest
        • difficulty carrying out daily routines
      • low self esteem
        • changes to relationships (work)
      • changes to social life
        • social isolation
    • treatment
      • reliever inhalers
        • relieve symptoms
          • relaxes muscles
      • preventer inhalers
        • prevents swelling/inflammation of airways
          • stops lungs from being sensitive
      • steriods
        • help regulate growth and functions
          • serve as hormones

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