Respiration Part one

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  • Respiration part one
    • why do we need to respire
      • used to create ATP or Adenosine triphosphate
        • know as the universal energy currency
      • it is need to power all metabolic process in the body such as
        • active transport
        • secreation
        • Endocytosis
        • DNA replication
        • Activation of chemical reactions
    • coenzymes and stages of respiration
      • respiration occurs in four stages
        • stage one: glycolysis
          • stage two: the link reaction
            • take place in the matrix of the mitochondria this is where pyruvate is dehydrogenated and decarboxylated into acetate
            • stage three: the krebs cycle/the citric cycle
              • takes place in the matrix of the mitochondrial acetate  dehydrogenated and decarboxylated
              • oxidative phosphorylation
                • takes place on the cristea of the mitochondria this is where ADP is phosphorylated to ATP
      • coenzymes are need to help with redox reactions during the glycolsis the link reaction and the krebs cycel
        • this is because the enzymes that carry out these reactions are not very good
      • the two types of co enzymes
        • NAD^+
          • this is used as an oxidizing agent it takes on two hydrogen ions and two electrons
        • coenzyme a (coa)
          • this is used to carry the acetate into the krebs cycle
    • glycolysis
      • this is separated into several steps
        • the first step is where an inorganic phosphate is attached using a ATP to the sixth carbon on glucose to make Glucose 6 P
          • this is then changed to fructose 6 P
            • Another phosphate group is attached using one ATP making hexose 1,6 bisphosphate
              • this is then split into two triose phosphates
                • at this stage hydrogen atoms are removed by two NADS which become reduced NADS or NADH as well as this two molecules of ATP are produced
                  • this brings it to an intermediate compound it is then changed into two pyruvates and two ADP's are phoprated into two ATP's
      • the link reaction and krebs cycle
        • the link reaction happens in three steps that are summarised as such 2pyruvate + 2NAD^+ + 2coa ===>2 reduced NAD +2CO2 + 2acetylCoa
        • the electron transport chain: oxidative phosphorylation and chemiosmosis
          • this stage occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane
            • these membranes are folded into cristae that increase the surface area
              • reduced NAD enters the cristea where it is reduced releasing two hydrogen atoms which are split into 2 electrons and 2H+
                • the electrons form this split attaching to the protein complexes makes enough energy for hydrogen ions to be pumped into the inner membrane


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