Respiration mind map, inc enzymes, aerobic and anaerobic respiration, 

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  • Respiration
    • Carbohydrate digestion
      • The carbohydrate starch, found in bread or potatoes, contains long complex molecules that the body can not digest.
        • However, carbohydrases (enzymes that break down carbohydrates) break down the starch into glucose that has smaller molecules that the body can easily digest.
      • The digestion of starch starts in the mouth, so that is why when chewing bread for a long time, it starts to taste sweet as the amylase enzymes break down starch molecules into glucose molecules.
    • Enzymes
      • Enzymes are proteins. the amino acid chains are folded to form the 'active site'.
      • Chemical reactions in the body are controlled by enzymes.
      • Amylase enzymes break down starch into sugars in the mouth and small intestine.
      • Protease enzymes break down protein into amino acids in the stomach and small intestine.
      • Lipase enzymes break down fats + oils into fatty acids and glycerol in the small intestine.
      • If the body temperature isn't constant, the enzymes in our body could denature.
    • Aerobic respiration
      • The equation: glucose + oxygen -> carbon dioxide and water (+ a lot of energy)
      • Most of the reactions in aerobic respiration take place in the mitochondria.
        • If a muscle is adapted to release a lot of energy, it will have densely packed mitochondria.
      • The energy released during aerobic respiration is used to build larger molecules from smaller ones and enables muscles to contract.
      • In mammals and birds, aerobic respiration enables them to maintain a steady body temperature.
    • Anaerobic respiration
      • The equation: glucose -> lactic acid (+ little energy)
      • If muscles work hard for a long time, they will become fatigued and so won't contract efficiently. If they don't get enough oxygen, they respire anaerobically.
      • Without oxygen, glucose is incompletely broken down, this forms lactic acid.
      • A build-up of lactic acid is one cause of muscle fatigue.
      • Blood flowing through the muscles removes the lactic acid.
      • After exercise, oxygen is still needed to break down lactic acid build up. The amount of oxygen needed is called 'oxygen dept'.
    • Blood glucose levels
      • High levels of glucose in the blood can damage tiny blood vessels, including those in the kidney.
      • Pancreas produces insulin which brings down blood glucose levels.
      • If diabetic, insulin wouldn't be produced fast enough to bring down blood sugar levels.
      • Having too much or too little sugar in the blood stream can cause serious health problems.
    • Insulin
      • Insulin is produced in the pancreas.
      • A hormone that regulates blood sugar levels.
      • People with type 1 diabetes can not make insulin.
    • Glycogen
      • Glycogen is a carbohydrate that can be stored as glucose in the muscles.
      • Glycogen can be rapidly converted back to glucose to use during exercise. The glucose is used in aerobic respiration to provide the energy to make the muscles contract.
    • Muscle cell
      • 3 ways that would increase the rate of glucose supply to muscle cells...
        • Widening (dilation) of arteries supplying  to muscle tissues because an increase in blood flow means more glucose can be carried.
        • Converting glycogen stores in muscle cells to glucose because there is now more glucose than there was previously.
        • Increased heart rate because the rate of glucose is speeded up as blood flow rate has increased.
      • When there is a high muscle to fat cell ratio, the body has a high metabolic rate.
    • Exercise
      • When the muscles are used, more glucose and oxygen is needed and more carbon dioxide is produced.
      • 3 body responses to exercise...
        • An increase in heart rate, in breathing rate and in depth of breathing.
        • Glycogen stores in the muscles are converted to glucose for cellular respiration.
        • The blood flow to the muscles increase.


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