Respiration

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  • Respiration
    • Converts chemical energy stored in glucose into chemical energy stored in ATP
    • ATP is very soluble and its energy can be released quickly & easily but stores less than glucose
    • Uses: muscle contraction, Active transport & Biosynthesis
    • ATP synthase uses the oxidation of glucose as a source of energy. ATPase releases the energy
    • Aerobic
      • Link reaction
        • Pyruvate enters mitochondrial matrix and is converted into 2C Acetyl CoA by removing CO2 and reducing NAD (goes to the ETC)
      • Krebs cycle
        • AcetyleCoA (2C) combines with Oxaloacetate (4C) to form citrate (6C)
        • Co2 is given off and NAD is reduced (goes to the ETC) and forms a 5C compound
        • one molecule of ATP is made and Co2 is given off, 2 NAD are reduced (used for ETC) and 1FAD is reduced (used for ETC) and forms Oxaloacetate (4C)
        • The cycle turns twice - once for each AcetyleCoA
      • E.T.C
        • Electrons from NADH and FADH go into the ETC, as they move down energy levels, ATP is created
        • H+ from the NADH and FADH diffuse into the inter membrane space then move back into the matrix by active transport combined with ATPase to form ATP
        • Unused electrons are removed from the ETC by combining with half an oxygen and hydrogen to form water
    • Anaerobic
      • Ethanolic
        • Plants and fungi
        • Reduction, NADH is used & NAD is regenerated
          • Lactic Acid
            • Animals  & bacteria
            • Reversible - energy in the lactate can be retrieved when oxygen is available again. Lactate is oxidised
            • Poisonous  - acidosis in cells, stops enzymes causes fatigue and cramp so cannot be done for long
        • 2C molecule of ethanol produced and Co2 is given off
        • Irreversable- energy in ethanol cannot be retrieved by cells
      • Lactic Acid
        • Animals  & bacteria
        • Reversible - energy in the lactate can be retrieved when oxygen is available again. Lactate is oxidised
        • Poisonous  - acidosis in cells, stops enzymes causes fatigue and cramp so cannot be done for long
      • When there is no oxygen, an extra step is added to glycolysis to regenerate NAD but only makes 2ATP from a glucose

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