Respiration

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  • Respiration
    • Evidence for Chemiosmosis
      • Uncouplers: destroy proton gradient, add uncoupler and no ATP will be produced - proton gradient is required
      • Low pH: Lower pH in inter membrane space than the matrix. More acidic = high concentration of H+ ions Proton gradient exists
      • Add mitochondria to a slightly alkaline solution (pH 8) No ATP produced. Add to a acidic sol(pH4) they produce ATP as protons moved out to the low concentration (outside matrix). (MATRIX AND INTERMEMBRANE SPACE SAME pH)
    • Anaerobic Respiration
      • ANIMALS&BACTERIA: LACTATE
        • Reduced NAD transfers H to pyruvate produces lactate (+NAD) glycolysis can continue as it regenerates NAD. ATP can still be made.
      • CO2 removed from pyruvate producing ETHANAL, NAD transfers an H forming ETHANOL. Glycolysis can continue
  • hexose phosphate -> hexose bisphosphate (ATP -> ADP + Pi)
    • hexose bisphosphate -> 2x triose phosphate
      • 2x triose phosphate -> 2x pyruvate (4ATP and 2x reduced NAD)
        • Substrate Level Phosphorylation
          • 5C -> Oxaloacetate (2x Reduced NAD, Reduced FAD, ATP, CO2
  • hexose bisphosphate -> 2x triose phosphate
    • 2x triose phosphate -> 2x pyruvate (4ATP and 2x reduced NAD)
      • Substrate Level Phosphorylation
        • 5C -> Oxaloacetate (2x Reduced NAD, Reduced FAD, ATP, CO2
  • Pyruvate -> Acetate (CO2 +Reduced NAD)
    • Acetate + Oxaloacetate-> Citrate
      • Citrate -> 5C (CO2 +Reduced NAD)
    • e- goes into E.T.C. loses energy, the energy lost helps the protons go across the intermembranespace.
      • Electrochemical gradient is set up, H+ goes back across the matrix via ATP synthase enzyme, in turn produces ATP.
        • H+, e- and O2 bind to form water. O2 is the final electron acceptor
    • Electrochemical gradient is set up, H+ goes back across the matrix via ATP synthase enzyme, in turn produces ATP.
      • H+, e- and O2 bind to form water. O2 is the final electron acceptor
    • Reduced NAD used in other reducing reactions
    • Actual Yield
      • Aerobic Respiration
        • Oxidative Phosphorylation
          • Reduced NAD and FAD release their H atoms, split to H+ and e-
            • e- goes into E.T.C. loses energy, the energy lost helps the protons go across the intermembranespace.
          • Respiration
            • Evidence for Chemiosmosis
              • Uncouplers: destroy proton gradient, add uncoupler and no ATP will be produced - proton gradient is required
              • Low pH: Lower pH in inter membrane space than the matrix. More acidic = high concentration of H+ ions Proton gradient exists
              • Add mitochondria to a slightly alkaline solution (pH 8) No ATP produced. Add to a acidic sol(pH4) they produce ATP as protons moved out to the low concentration (outside matrix). (MATRIX AND INTERMEMBRANE SPACE SAME pH)
            • Anaerobic Respiration
              • ANIMALS&BACTERIA: LACTATE
                • Reduced NAD transfers H to pyruvate produces lactate (+NAD) glycolysis can continue as it regenerates NAD. ATP can still be made.
              • CO2 removed from pyruvate producing ETHANAL, NAD transfers an H forming ETHANOL. Glycolysis can continue
        • Reduced NAD used in other reducing reactions
        • Some ATP used by actively transporting substances into mitochondria (PYRUVATE)
        • 32 ATPS made!
      • Some ATP used by actively transporting substances into mitochondria (PYRUVATE)
      • Chemiosmosis: formation of ATP from the movement of ions
        • YEAST&PLANTS: ALCOHOL
          • ATP yield less, only 2ATPs made every time
            • Aerobic Respiration
              • Oxidative Phosphorylation
                • Reduced NAD and FAD release their H atoms, split to H+ and e-
              • 32 ATPS made!

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