Aerobic Respiration

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  • Respiration
    • Glycolysis
      • The first step in respiration
      • 2 ATP molecules phosphorylate glucose to 'phosphorylated glucose' releasing 2 ADP molecules
        • The 'phosphorylated glucose' splits into 2 triose phosphate (TP) molecules
          • The TP molecules are oxidised by NAD producing 2 NADH molecules and pyruvate.
            • Energy is released in during this oxidation and phosphorylates 2 ADP into ATP (per TP molecule)
      • This stage occurs in the cytosol of cells and produces 2 NADH and 2 ATP molecules.
    • Link Reaction
      • Occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria and produces 2 NADH molecules
      • The second step in respiration
      • Pyruvate from glycolysis is oxidised and decarboxylated and combined with co-enzyme A
        • This form 2 molecules of Acetyl Co-enzyme A, 2 molecules of carbon dioxide and 2 molecules of NADH
    • Krebs Cycle
      • Occurs in the matrix of the mitocondria and per glucose molecule form 4 carbon dioxide molecules, 6 NADH, 2 FADH and 2 ATP
      • The Acetyl Co-Enzyme A from the link reaction combines with a 4C acid to form a 6C acid
        • This 6C acid is decarboxylated and oxidised into a 5C acid releasing carbon dioxide and NADH
          • This 5C acid is the decarboxylated further to reform the 4C acid, producing carbon dioxide as well as ATP, FADH and 2 molecules of NADH
    • Electron Transport Chain
      • Occurs on the cristae of the mitochondria
      • Reduced NAD and FAD donate their electrons to the electron transport chain, releasing the protons which are actively transported across the membrane
        • The electron moves along the ETC in a series of oxidation and reduction reactions.
          • The electrons lose energy as they move along the ETC, providing the energy to phosphorylate ADP to ATP when hydrogen ions rush through ATP synthase.
        • The Hydrogen ions which have accumulated in the inter-membranal space rush through the enzyme ATP synthase, forming ATP
          • These hydrogen ions are then reduced as they gain the electron from the ETC and are accepted by oxygen to produce water
        • Each NADH produces 3 ATP molecules and each FADH produces 2 ATP molecules


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