Respiration

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  • Created by: vezting
  • Created on: 08-03-16 11:01
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  • Respiration processes
    • Glycolysis
      • phosphorylation
        • 1: ATP is hydrolysed and the phosphate group attaches to glucose
        • 2: this created hexose phosphate and a molecule of ADP
        • 3: hexose phosphate is phosphorylated by ATP to form hexose bi phosphate and ADP
        • 4: hexose bi phosphate is split into triose phosphate
      • oxidation
        • 1:triose phosphate is oxidised by dehydrogenase enzyme (loses hydrogen) forming 2 molecules of pyruvate
        • 2: NAD collects the hydrogen ions forming NADH (reduced) and 4 ATP produced, net gain of 2.substrate level phosphorylation
      • glycolysis is a metabolic pathway which occurs in cytoplasm
    • link reaction and krebs cycle
      • link reaction
        • 1: pyruvate enters mitochondrial matrix
        • 2: pyruvate is dehydrogenated by dehydrogenase enzymes and decarboxylated by decarboxylase enzymes
        • 3: products are NADH and CO2 and acetate
        • 4: acetate combines with CoA tof orm acetyl CoA and CoA carries acetate into krebs cycle.
      • Krebs cycle
        • 1: Acetate from acetyle CoA combines with oxceloacetate to from citrate
        • 2: citrate is decarboxylate in a series of small enzyme controlled reactions
        • 3: this reforms opxceloacetate  and during this 3x NADH and 1x FADH are produced
        • 4: one molecule of ATP os formed by substrate level phosphorylation
        • 2x CO2 as waste product
    • oxidative phosphorylation and chemiosmosis
      • chemiosmosis
        • how ATP is made
        • ATP synthase on inner mitochondrial membrane
        • when 3H+ ions pass through, enough energy for ADP+Pi to form ATP
      • oxidative phosphorylation
        • 1: NADH and FADH are oxidised in solution to release H ion and E
        • 2: E enter ETC which has 3 carries, each level makes the E lose energy
        • 3: this energy is used to actively pump H ions into the intermembrane space from matrix
        • 3: this creates an  electro chemical gradient
        • 4: H ions re enter mitochondrial matrix down gradient, passing through ATP synthase.
        • oxygen acts as the final electron acceptor.

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