ATP and Respiration - key terms

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  • Respiration -Key Words
    • ATP
      • A way of transferring energy from compounds such as glucose to cellular reactions where energy is needed
    • Carboxylation reaction
      • Addition of CO2 to a substance
    • De-carboxylation reaction
      • The removal of CO2 from a substance
    • Dehydrogenation reaction
      • Removal of hydrogen
    • Redox
      • Reduction and Oxidation
    • Reduction
      • Addition of electrons to a substance (addition of hydrogen /removal of oxygen)
    • Oxidation
      • Removal of electrons from a substance. Removal of electroons is usually brought about by the addition of oxygen/removal of hydrogen
    • Co-enzyme
      • Complex non-protein organic molecules functions as a carrier transferring chemical group as atoms from the active site of one enzymes in order to function E.g. NAD, FAD
    • Electron
      • Neg. charged subatomic particle - electrons orbit the nucleus and are responsible for most chemical processes
    • Proton
      • Postivie charged sub-atomic particle
    • Chemiosmosis
      • Theory on structure of ATP - proposes that the energy for the ATP-sysnthesis originates from the electrogradient of protons across membrane
    • Substrate-Level Phosphorylation
      • type of metabolic reaction that results in the formation of ATP by the direct transfer and donation of a phosphoryl group to ADP from a phosphorylated reactive intermediate.
      • Occurs on the membrane of the chloroplast during photosynthesis
    • Link Reaction
      • Links glycolysis to the Kreb's cycle. Pyruvate molecules are oxidated and converted to Acetly Co A
    • Krebs Cycle
      • The sequence of reactions by which most living cells generate energy during the process of aerobic respiration; takes place in the mitochondria, using up O2, picking up CO2. ADP is converted into ATP.
    • Oxidative Phosphorylation
      • Occurs on the membrane of the mitocondria produces ATP
    • Photophosphorylation
      • Occurs on the membrane of the chloroplast during photosynthesis


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