Respiration and Gas Exchange

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  • Respiration and Gas Exchange
    • Respirtation
      • Aerobic
        • Aerobic respiration needs oxygen
        • Aerobic respiration happens all the time in animals and plants
        • Most of the reactions in aerobic respiration happen inside mitochondria in cells.
        • Note that respiration is different to breathing (ventilation)
      • Anaerobic
        • Unlike aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration does not need oxygentled
        • It is the release of a relatively small amount of energy in cells
        • Anaerobic respiration happens in muscles during hard exercise:
        • glucose ? lactic acid
    • Gas exchange in plants
      • The  Leaf
        • The structure of the leaf is adapted for gas exchange
        • The cells in thespongy mesophyll (lower layer) are loosely packed
          • covered by a thin film of water
        • There are tiny pores, called stomata, in the surface of the leaf
          • The stomata control gas exchange in the leaf
          • Each stoma can be open or closed, depending on how turgid its guard cells are.
          • Diffusion of carbon dioxide, oxygen and water vapour into (or out of) the leaf is greatest when the stomata are open.
          • In the light, the guard cells absorb water by osmosis, become turgid and the stoma opens.In the dark, the guard cells lose water, become flaccid and the stoma closes.
    • The respiratory system
      • The trachea branches into two bronchi
        • The bronchi split into smaller and smaller tubes called bronchioles.
          • These end in microscopic air sacs called alveoli
      • The bronchi split into smaller and smaller tubes called bronchioles.
        • These end in microscopic air sacs called alveoli
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