• Created by: Kayliss71
  • Created on: 23-05-18 21:33
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  • Respiration
    • 1) Glycolysis
      • Glucose is phosphorylated using a phosphate from one molecule of ATP
      • ATP is then used to add another phosphate which forms hexose bisphosphate
        • Hexose bisphosphate is then split into two molecules of triose phosphate
      • Triose phosphate is then oxidised forming two molecules of pyruvate
      • NAD collects the hydrogen ions forming 2 reduced NAD
      • 4 ATP are produced so we get a net gain of 2 ATP
    • 2) The link reaction
      • Pyruvate is decarboxylated ( one carbon atom is removed from pyruvate in the form of CO2)
      • Pyruvate is then oxidised to form acetate and NAD is reduced to form reduced NAD
      • Acetate is combined with coenzyme A to form acetylCoA
      • No ATP is produced in this reaction
    • 4)Oxidative phosphorylation
      • Hydrogen atoms are released from reduced NAD and reduced FAD. The H atoms split into protons (H+) and electrons (e-)
      • The electrons move down the ETC losing energy at each carrier
      • This energy is used by the electron carriers to pump protons from the matrix into the inetermembrane space
      • The conc of protons is now higher in the intermembrane space than in the matrix - forms an electronchemical gradient
      • Protons then move down this gradient via ATP synthase
        • Chemiosmotic theory
        • Oxygen is the final electron acceptor
    • 3) The Krebs cycle
      • Acetyl CoA from the link reaction combines with a four carbon molecule to form a 6 carbon molecue
      • The 6 carbon molecule is converted into a 5 carbon molecule
        • Decarboxylation occurs
        • Dehydrogenation also occurs. The hydrogen removed is used to produce reduced NAD
    • Anaerobic respiration
      • The pyruvate produced in glycolysis is converted into ethanol in plants and lactate in animals using reduced NAD
      • The production of ethanol or lactate regenerates oxidised NAD, this means glycolysis can continue even when there is little oxygen so a small amount of ATP is produced


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