Respiration

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  • ATP
    • All living organisms gain energy by the process of respiration.
      • Respiration involves the gradual release of energy in a number of small steps, rather than releasing energy all at once.
        • Glucose is broken down by ENZYMES to form a number of intermediate compounds, which releases small quantities of energy at each stage.
          • The reactions provide the energy to produce a molecule called ATP - Adenosine Tri-Phospahte
    • How ATP stores energy.
      • Bonds between phosphate groups are unstable and are easily broken, releasing energy.
        • In cells, it is only the 3rd phosphate group that is removed. The reaction is catalysed by the enzyme ATPase
      • The addition of phosphate to ADP is called PHOSPHORYLATION.
        • ATP is a way of transferring energy from compounds such as glucose to cellular reactions where energy is needed
      • There are three forms of phosphorylation
        • Oxidative phosphorylation - occurs on the membrane of the mitochondria. Produces ATP
        • Substrate-level phosphorrylation - occurs when phosphate groups are transfered to ADP to form ATP
        • Photo-phosphorylation - occurs on the membrane of the chloroplast during photosynthesis
    • Importance of ATP
      • It is needed for protein-synthesis, active transport, muscle contraction, nerve transmission
      • Different types of energy can be transfered into a commmon form
        • e.g. glucose can be used to form  ATP
      • Only one molecule is needed to transfer energy to all chemical reactions
      • Only one enzyme - ATPase is needed
      • Energy can be supplied in small amounts/small packages -30.6KJ
      • Easily transported across membranes
      • Single bond is needed to be broken to release energy
    • The roles of ATP; provides energy for..
      • Active Transport - changing shape of carrier proteins e.g. Na+/K+ pump
      • Muscle contractions
      • Metabolic processes
        • Anabolic = building large complex molecules from simple molecules
        • Catabolic = breaking down large molecules into small molecules
      • Nerve Transmission
      • Secretion = exocytosis
      • When a phosphate molecule is transferred from ATP to another molecule - it makes it more reactive and so lowers the activation energy of that molecule
    • Why ATP is sometimes called the universal energy currency?
      • Used by all organisms/species. They use it to provide energy for nearly all biochemical reactions

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