Research Methods In Psychology

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  • Research Methods In Psychology
    • Hypothesis -  A statement predicting the outcome of research.
      • Null Hypothesis- A statement which predicts no difference or correlation in results.
        • Alternative Hypothesis- A statement which predicts a difference or correlation in results.
    • Variables - Anything that is open to change.
      • Independent Variable- Something the research changes or manipulates.
        • Dependent Variable- Something that is measured to see if it has changed, when the independent has been changed
          • Standardisation - A way of controlling extraneous variables, to keep variables the same across conditions
        • Extraneous Variable - A variable, which could affect the dependent variable if it is not controlled. i.e, the weather.
    • Experimental designs- A way of allocating participants to conditions in an experiment.
      • Repeated Measured design - An experimental design in which the participant takes part in  both conditions.
      • Independent groups design -  An experimental design which participants are different in each condition.
    • Sampling - A smaller group selected from  larger population.
      • Target Population- A set of people researches want to generalise their results too.
      • Representative - A accurate reflection of a larger group
      • Random Sample- A sample of which everyone in the target population has an equal chance of being chosen.
      • Opportunity Sampling - A sample drawn from the target population because they are available and convenient
    • Ethical Considerations- Issues of research that take into account the welfare of participants.
      • Informed Consent - Where the participants agrees to take part in the experiment and knows what the aim of the study is.
      • Right to withdraw - When participants are allowed to stop participating in a study
      • Confidentiality - Protecting the identity of participants by not revealing names and other details.
    • Experiments.
      • Lab Experiment- An experiment carried out in a controlled environment
      • Field Experiment - An experiment carried out in a natural environment
      • Questionnaires - A set of pre determined question, same for all respondents
        • Self report- When participans report their own experiences
      • Interview- Face to face questioning.
        • Unstructured interview. - An interview when questions will vary on the response if the person being interviewed.
    • Overt observation- To observe people with their knowledge of them being observed
      • Covert Observation- to observe people without them knowing
    • Studies-
      • Correlation study- A study that analyses two sets of data for a relationship.
      • Longitudinal study- A study carried out over a period of time.
      • A study when two or more people or more groups are compared.
    • Findings
      • Validity- Reflecting on the truth
        • Ecological validity -  Reflecting on the real life situation.
      • Reliability- Consistency : replicates itself
      • Inter-rater reliability  - When researches  agrres on the findings
      • Demand characteristics - cues which give away the aim.
      • Observer effect- When participants behave differently from normal because they know they are being observed.
      • Social desirability- this describes responses that participants give when say what they think the researches want them to say.


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