# Research Methods-Design

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• Created by: Olivia
• Created on: 14-04-14 18:33
• RM-Design
• Hypothesis
• Directional Hypothesis: a prediction that tells you which group will do better-'more alcohol consumed, the slower the reaction time'.
• Non-Directional Hypothesis: prediction that doesn't predict which group will do better-'alcohol affects reaction time'.
• Null Hypothesis: prediction of no difference-'alcohol will have no effect on reaction time'.
• Variables
• Independent Variable: the thing you change.
• Dependant Variable: the thing you measure.
• Extraneous Variable: everything apart from the IV or DV.
• Situational Variables: noise outside the room, time of day etc.
• Participant Variable: individual differences, helping hand effect etc.
• Investigator Effects
• Loud.
• Bossy.
• Male/Female.
• Race.
• Order Effects
• Practice Effects: going faster because you've done it before (repeated measures).
• Fatigue Effects: get tired of task and go slower.
• Dealing with Extraneous Varibles
• Standardise Procedures: plan what to say.
• Standardise Instructions: written instructions.
• Single Blind Design: participant doesn't know what condition they're in.
• Double Blind Design: participant and investigator does not know the condition.
• Confounding Variable: something that affects the dependant variable.
• Order Effects
• Practice Effects: going faster because you've done it before (repeated measures).
• Fatigue Effects: get tired of task and go slower.
• Operationalizing Variables: defining the variables, written in a way that can measured.
• Aims
• Statement of the area of research interest-'how alcohol affects reaction time'.
• Demand Characteristics: things in an experiment that help people realise what they are being tested for and so they act differently.
• Experimental Design
• Independent Group Design: two groups, one controlled, one not, compare results.
• + no order effects, no practice of fatigue effects.
• - individual differences, twice as many participants.
• Repeated Measures Design: experiment is repeated using the same participants.
• + individual differences minimised, fewer people needed.
• - participants might try to be helpful(demand characteristics), boredom, one test might be harder.
• Matched Pairs Design: participants are matched on important variables.
• + controls participant variables, no fatigue or boredom effects.
• - could be difficult to match pairs, time and money.
• Investigator Effects
• Loud.
• Bossy.
• Male/Female.
• Race.
• Pilot Study
• Small scale study to test procedure and find and fix problems.
• Validity
• (how real something is)
• Internal Validity: how strong the experiment is, how carefully designed and carried out it is, making sure there are no confounding variables.
• External Validity: how far you can generalise results, ecological validity.
• Population Validity: if your target population  is able to generalise to the whole world.
• Cross-Cultural Validity: if you can apply the procedure or findings to every culture.
• Reliability
• Internal Reliability: making sure everything within the test is all consistent and measuring the same thing.
• (consistency of a measure)
• External Validity: when the results may differ (chair measuring 2 different lengths with 2 different rulers).
• Inter-Rater Reliability: measure of reliability used to access the degree to which different people agree in their assessment decisions.
• Ethics
• Informed Consent.
• Deception.
• Protection from psychological and physical harm.
• Debriefing.
• Right to withdraw.
• Confidentiality.