Research Methods-Design

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  • Created by: Olivia
  • Created on: 14-04-14 18:33
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  • RM-Design
    • Hypothesis
      • Directional Hypothesis: a prediction that tells you which group will do better-'more alcohol consumed, the slower the reaction time'.
      • Non-Directional Hypothesis: prediction that doesn't predict which group will do better-'alcohol affects reaction time'.
      • Null Hypothesis: prediction of no difference-'alcohol will have no effect on reaction time'.
    • Variables
      • Independent Variable: the thing you change.
      • Dependant Variable: the thing you measure.
      • Extraneous Variable: everything apart from the IV or DV.
        • Situational Variables: noise outside the room, time of day etc.
        • Participant Variable: individual differences, helping hand effect etc.
        • Investigator Effects
          • Loud.
          • Bossy.
          • Male/Female.
          • Race.
          • Explanation of tasks.
        • Order Effects
          • Practice Effects: going faster because you've done it before (repeated measures).
          • Fatigue Effects: get tired of task and go slower.
        • Dealing with Extraneous Varibles
          • Standardise Procedures: plan what to say.
          • Standardise Instructions: written instructions.
          • Single Blind Design: participant doesn't know what condition they're in.
          • Double Blind Design: participant and investigator does not know the condition.
      • Confounding Variable: something that affects the dependant variable.
      • Order Effects
        • Practice Effects: going faster because you've done it before (repeated measures).
        • Fatigue Effects: get tired of task and go slower.
      • Operationalizing Variables: defining the variables, written in a way that can measured.
    • Aims
      • Statement of the area of research interest-'how alcohol affects reaction time'.
    • Demand Characteristics: things in an experiment that help people realise what they are being tested for and so they act differently.
    • Experimental Design
      • Independent Group Design: two groups, one controlled, one not, compare results.
        • + no order effects, no practice of fatigue effects.
        • - individual differences, twice as many participants.
      • Repeated Measures Design: experiment is repeated using the same participants.
        • + individual differences minimised, fewer people needed.
        • - participants might try to be helpful(demand characteristics), boredom, one test might be harder.
      • Matched Pairs Design: participants are matched on important variables.
        • + controls participant variables, no fatigue or boredom effects.
        • - could be difficult to match pairs, time and money.
    • Investigator Effects
      • Loud.
      • Bossy.
      • Male/Female.
      • Race.
      • Explanation of tasks.
    • Pilot Study
      • Small scale study to test procedure and find and fix problems.
    • Validity
      • (how real something is)
      • Internal Validity: how strong the experiment is, how carefully designed and carried out it is, making sure there are no confounding variables.
      • External Validity: how far you can generalise results, ecological validity.
      • Population Validity: if your target population  is able to generalise to the whole world.
      • Cross-Cultural Validity: if you can apply the procedure or findings to every culture.
    • Reliability
      • Internal Reliability: making sure everything within the test is all consistent and measuring the same thing.
      • (consistency of a measure)
      • External Validity: when the results may differ (chair measuring 2 different lengths with 2 different rulers).
      • Inter-Rater Reliability: measure of reliability used to access the degree to which different people agree in their assessment decisions.
    • Ethics
      • Informed Consent.
      • Deception.
      • Protection from psychological and physical harm.
      • Debriefing.
      • Right to withdraw.
      • Confidentiality.

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