research methods

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  • research methods
    • independent variable(IV)
      • directly manipulated in order to observe its effects on DV
    • Dependent variable(DV)
      • depends some way on the IV
    • extraneous variable(EV)
      • variable potentially affect the DV confound the findings
    • aims/ hypothese
      • AIM:researcher intends to investigate
      • HYPOTHESIS: precise/ testable statement expected relationship between variables
        • directional: states direction of predicted difference, two conditions/groups
        • non-directional: predicting there will be a difference, without stating direction
    • questionnaires/ interviews
      • closed questions: produce quantitative date...forced to select answers don't represent real thoughts
      • open questions: provide their own answers
        • provide unexpected answers,rich detail, researchers gain new insights
        • difficult to summarise; wide variety of responses...difficult to draw conclusions
      • pilot study: tested on small group, refine questions
      • Structured interview: questions are decided in advance/ same for all
      • Unstructured interview: questions unplanned/ guided by repondents answers
      • Clinical interview: (semi-structred0 starts with few standard questions..later questions developin reponse
    • Validity: study/findings are legitimate or true
      • internal validity: study has tested what it set out to test
      • external validity: degree research findings can be generalised+other setting (ecological validity)
      • EXAMPLE: low internal validity=lack generaliability =low external validity
      • Mundane realism; study mirrors in real world.everyday life!
  • directly manipulated in order to observe its effects on DV


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