Research Methods Part 1

hypothesis, types of experiments, variables, validity

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  • RESEARCH METHODS
    • HYPOTHESIS- prediction of what the investigater thinks will happen
      • NULL- predicts no difference or relationship
      • ALTERNATE- predicts a difference or reltionship
        • 1 TAILED- non directional, simply states there will be a difference and not whether it will increase/decrease etc
        • 2 TAILED- directional, knows which direction the results will go in
    • TYPES OF EXPERIMENT
      • LAB-conducted in a lab, variables are highly controlled and participants are aware they're taking part
        • STRE- more reliable, high tech equipment can be used, high control over variables, cause and effect can easily be determined
        • WEAK- less mundane realism, less ecological validity, demand characteristics, deception
      • FIELD- conducted in a natural environment (eg school). The IV is still changed but the participants may not be aware that they're taking part
        • STRE- improved mundane realism, reduction of demand characteristics
        • WEAK- hard to establish control, less ecological validity, more costly, takes longer, difficult to use equipment, bias (selective participants)
      • QUASI- IV is not manipulated but occurs naturally. Researcher takes advantage of pre-existing conditions
        • WEAK- loss of control, less likelihood of desired behaviour being displayed, less reliability
        • STRE-less demand characteristics, lack of direct intervention, high ecological validity
    • VARIABLES- aspects of the experiment
      • DV- something that is measured to see if it has changes
      • IV- something the investigator changes or manipulates (two conditions)
    • VALIDITY- the extent to which a test measures what it claims to measure
      • EXPERIMENTAL-  whether the experiment was highly controlled, and was realistic to be able to be generalised to other people and environments
        • INTERNAL- whether we can be certain that it was the IV which caused the change in the DV
          • MUNDANE REALISM-  how well the experimental situation reflects real life, high mundane realism = high ecological validity
          • EXTRANEOUS- something other than the IV which affects the DV
            • VARIABLES- aspects of the experiment
              • DV- something that is measured to see if it has changes
              • IV- something the investigator changes or manipulates (two conditions)
            • SITUATIONAL- something about the situation could effect the DV e.g. poor lighting. Can be over come through STANDARDISATION, ensuring all participants are tested under the same conditons
            • PARTICIPANT- differences between the participants that cause the change. It can be overcome by repeated measures design or matched pairs
              • DEMAND CHARACTERISTICS-  strucutre could lead the participants to guess the aim which may cause change in behaviour. To avoid, create a design where they cannot guess the aim
              • PARTICIPANT EFFECT- participants may become aware that they're in an experiment so either become overly helpful or spoil the experiment "screw you" effect. To avoid, create a design where they cannot guess the aim
            • INVESTIGATOR EFFECT- the behaviour or the language of the investigator may act as a cue for the participants- EXPERIMENTER BIAS.It can be over come through double blind technique
        • EXTERNAL- how well the results can be generalised beyond the experimental setting
          • ECOLOGICAL- how well the results can be generalised to other places and settings
          • POPULATION- how well the participants used in the experiment represent the general population.
      • PSYCH MEASURES-  concepts need to be turned into number to be measures and compared- OPERATIONALISED. but it loses validity
        • CONTENT- if the method used actually seems to measure what you intend to. To ensure, a panel of experts assess the measure for validity
        • CONCURRENT - how well the measures agree with existing measures. We can ensure concurrent validity by testing the participants with both new and established tests
        • CONSTRUCT- if the method used is actually measuring ALL parts of what we are aiming to test. To maintain we need to define and ensure that all parts are being measured
      • PILOT STUDIES- small scale study conducted on a small sample. A trial run to test out the planned procedures and reduce any erros

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