Research methods

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  • Research methods
    • Investigation Design
      • Aim
        • General statement describing the purpose of the study
      • Hypothesis
        • Prediction of what will happen in your experiment
        • Directional Hypothesis
          • Direction of what the effect wil be
          • For Example ... More clothes worn in cold weather, less clothes worn in warm weather
        • Non - Directional Hypothesis
          • Non - Directional Hypothesis
            • Will be a difference or relationship but DONT say what the difference is
        • Null Hypothesis
          • There will be no difference between the conditions
      • Varables
        • Independent Variable
          • Things we change also known as the cause
        • Dependent variables
          • Thing we are measuring also known as the effect
        • Extraneous Variables
          • Something that can have an effect on the IV's and the DV's
      • Investigator Effects
        • Personal Characteristics
          • attractiveness, accent, dress sense, smell etc - may affect findings
        • Can occur when investigators behaviour or characteristics influence in some way
        • Expectation
          • may be expecting to find no difference so only look things that only support findings
      • Demand Characteristics
        • Demand Characteristics
          • Work out the aim  and try and prove it play along
        • Screw You Effect
          • Work out the aim and then do the opposite to screw up the experiment
        • Social Desirability Biased
          • Lie/Act to look good
      • Pilot Study
        • Small run through of the study prior to the big study
          • Helps identify any problems
      • Reliabilty
        • Consistency
          • Getting results twice after doing a retest
      • Validity
        • Test doing what it was set out to do
          • Measure what was you intend to measure
        • Internal Validity
          • Concludes the IV the ting that affected the DV than other than EV's - possible to conclude in a alab setting
        • External Validity
          • Results can be generalised beyond experiment
    • Methods and Techniques
      • Experimental Methods
        • Lab
          • Artifcal and fake (set up) - IV is manipulated - Remove all EV's
        • Field
          • Real world envirroment
          • IV is manipulated
        • Natural
          • Takes place in real world
          • IV occurs naturally (not manipulated)
      • Experimental Design
        • Repeated Measures
          • Same participants in every condition
          • Strengths
            • No individual differences
            • Counter balancings
          • Weaknesses
            • Order effects
            • Boredom effects
        • Independent groups
          • Different participants in different cnditions
          • Strengths
            • No order effects
            • No boredom effects
          • Weaknesses
            • Individual differences
        • Match pairs
          • Different people in each different conditions matched on set characteristcs
          • Strengths
            • No order effects
            • No boredom effects
          • Weakness
            • Individual differences
      • Observation Techniques
        • Observation
          • watching the behaviour and observing them looking for certain characteristics
          • Controlled
            • carried out in a lab in highly controlled conditions
          • Natural
            • Carried out in a natural environment
      • Self Report Techniques
        • Questionaires
          • Filled in alone
            • Uses open and closed questions
              • People may lie to look good
                • Social Desirability Biased (Weakness)
        • Interview
          • Structured
            • Questions planned - don't go off go off subject or ask other questions
          • Semi-Structred
            • Questions planned but can other questions around them to find out more detail.
          • Unstructed
            • No questions ask it as goes and discuss things in different things about what is being said
      • Case Study
        • In depth study of one persons life or a very small froup of people
        • Time consuming and is carried out over a long period of time
        • Would have used other method of research too
    • Ethical Issues
      • Right to with draw
        • Don't get used
        • Can walk out at any time
        • In the beging ending or middle
      • Informed consnet
        • prior general consent
          • Don't have to say what it is
          • Can be done at anytime
        • Presumptive consent
          • A similar group said yes so they will too
          • Similar audience
        • Participants must sign
      • Confidentiality
        • Private
        • Replace name
        • NEVER publish photos, names or address
      • British Psychology Society
        • Have to check with them to see if it is ethical
      • Deception
        • Right to withdraw
          • Can withdraw at t anytime
        • Debrefing
          • Tel them EVERYTHING when iver
            • Mae sure they are okay
        • Don't use data
        • Give them false information
          • Never get over the fact that you lied
      • protection of participants
        • Confidentiality
        • Make sure they are in a better mood than when they came in
        • Right to withdraw
    • Sampling Techniques
      • Random
        • Chosen people at random
        • Small Sample - Pull names out of a hat
        • Large Sample - use a random number generator
      • Volunteer
        • People volunteer to do it (go to them)
      • Oppurtunity
        • Use people around them.... Easy to get
        • e ... A psychology teacher will use their students
    • Data and graphs
      • Data
        • Quantative data
          • Numerical data
          • Closed questions
          • Not a lot of information
        • Qualative Data
          • Open questions
          • More information
          • Non-Numerical data
      • Graphs
        • Pie Chart
        • Bar  chart
        • Frequency polygon

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