Research methods experimental design and types - with explanation and advantages and disadvantages.

Types of experiment and experimental design. With descriptions and strenghts and weaknesses.

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  • Experiment Design and type
    • Independent Groups Design
      • Participants are randomly allocated to either one condition of the other of the conditions.
      • + No order effects, reduced chance of demand characteristic.
      • - Least effective for controlling participant variables and more participants are required.
    • Matched Pairs Design
      • Participants are as closely as possible matched with another participant with another participant and then the pairs are randomly allocated conditions
      • + No order effect, and a good attempt at controlling participant variables
      • - Difficult to match participants and more participants are required
    • Laboratory Experiment
      • Lab experiments are where the Independent variables are manipulated and the extraneous variables are controlled.
      • + high levels of control and a high replicability
      • - lacks ecological validity and can be criticized for artificiality.
    • Field Experiment
      • Controls the independent variable but does not control the extraneous variables
      • + cause and effect can be concluded and there are high levels of ecological validity.
      • - less control of extraneous variables and time consuming
    • Natural Experiment
      • Participants are observed in their natural environment, doesn't manipulate the Iv and ther is no random allocation (quasi-experiment)
      • + high ecological validity and is useful where it is considered unetical for the IV to be manipulated
      • - high internal validity and no random conditions.
    • Repeated Measures Design
      • The same participants are used in both conditions. It is best used when there's only a small number of participants.
      • + Participant variables are eliminated and uses fewer participants.
      • - Order effect can occur (fatigue, learning and boredom) and there is an increased chance of demand characteristic occurring.


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