Research Methods - Questionnaires

  • Created by: izznat26
  • Created on: 31-12-20 15:57
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  • Questionnaires
    • Methods of distribution
      • Postal questionnaires - mail/email
      • Self-completion - respondent can take away to complete and return in their own time
      • Face-to-face with a researcher present
    • Closed Questions
      • fixed responses
        • yes/no
        • Likert scale
      • usually precoded answer possibilities
        • can be turned into quantitative data - favoured by positivists
      • lower in validity because of fixed responses
      • Imposition problem
        • researcher decides answers that can be chosen from - limits respondents voice
    • Open Questions
      • creates qualitative data - favoured by interpretivists
      • allows respondents to provide unique answers
        • can be used to explain motivation behind people's actions
          • researcher can understand why people behave in certain ways
      • lower in reliability beacause of the variety of responses people could give
    • Recent trend in combination of both open and closed questions so that researchers can gather quantitative data on opinions and ask follow up questions to understand the reason behind a response
    • Practical
      • cheap and easy to produce
        • can be widely distributed
      • don't take up lots of respondents time
      • 'Right-answering'  Respondents may answer based on what they think the researcher will want them to say
      • often have a low response rate
        • makes them expensive and time consuming if only a small amount are being returned
      • questions have to be created carefully
        • can't be too ambiguous nor should they lead to a specific conclusion
    • Ethical
      • less intrusive than other methods
      • could cause distress to respondent if talking about sensitive subjects e.g. domestic violence, crime, parenting style e.t.c
      • usually no researcher present to build a rapport with respondents
      • data must be kept secure to ensure confidentiality
      • anonymity might make respondents more honest with answers
    • Theoretical
      • Positivists favour quantitative data produced by closed questions
      • Interpretivists favour qualitative data produced by open questions
      • Favoured by positivists on the whole because it's a detached and objective method


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