Questionnaires

  • Created by: inkmemos
  • Created on: 18-02-17 13:20
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  • RESEARCH METHODS: Question-naires
    • Open Ended Questions
      • Unanticipated findings discovered
      • Preferred by Interpretivists
      • Can give detailed answers
      • Allows creativity and self expression
      • A logical thinking process can be shown through such answers
      • Time consuming
      • Difficult to compare
      • Opinion may be biased due to desired social attitudes
      • Cost of money for the paper
      • Misunderstan-dings in questions
    • Theoretical issues
      • Postal Questionnaires: no researcher present to influence anyone.
      • Collection of results allows comparison between societies, making it representitive
      • May not be valid, as they are obtained at a certain period, making it a snap-shot from only that time
      • May not be valid due to respondent giving false information
      • Positivists like questionnaires because they are detached and objective, and is a scientific approach
      • Interpretivists do not like this method. Cicourel: valid pictures can only be gained through verstehen
    • Practical Issues
      • Quick and cheap way of gathering large quantities of data
      • Data easy to quantify and can be processed by computers to look at patterns
      • Postal questionnaires may not be received by respondent, or may be addressed to wrong person.
      • Data can be limited and superficial due to brief answers
    • Scaled Questions
      • Easier to compare
      • Collected quickly
      • Shows to what extent the respondent agrees
      • Flexible
      • Easy to code and categorise
      • Favoured by positivists
      • Respondent cannot express emotions
      • If the scaled is even-numbered, there is no middle value - it is always closer to one side
      • Takes time to construct
      • Can express false impressions of attitudes
    • Ethical Issues
      • Respondents do not have to answer questions if they don't want to.
      • Researchers can gain informed consent, and right to withdraw.
      • Researchers may ask leading questions that influence respondent's answers
      • Shipman: Researchers "prune and blend" data
    • Closed/Fixed Choice Questions
      • Favoured by Positivists who see responses as social facts.
      • Data can be collected quickly.
      • Easier to code
      • Easier to compare
      • More likely to answer about sensitive topics
      • Less literate people have no disadvantage
      • Not favoured by Interpretivists; poor for collecting information about feelings and emotions
      • Lacks detail
      • RESEARCH METHODS: Question-naires
        • Open Ended Questions
          • Unanticipated findings discovered
          • Preferred by Interpretivists
          • Can give detailed answers
          • Allows creativity and self expression
          • A logical thinking process can be shown through such answers
          • Time consuming
          • Difficult to compare
          • Opinion may be biased due to desired social attitudes
          • Cost of money for the paper
          • Misunderstan-dings in questions
        • Theoretical issues
          • Postal Questionnaires: no researcher present to influence anyone.
          • Collection of results allows comparison between societies, making it representitive
          • May not be valid, as they are obtained at a certain period, making it a snap-shot from only that time
          • May not be valid due to respondent giving false information
          • Positivists like questionnaires because they are detached and objective, and is a scientific approach
          • Interpretivists do not like this method. Cicourel: valid pictures can only be gained through verstehen
        • Practical Issues
          • Quick and cheap way of gathering large quantities of data
          • Data easy to quantify and can be processed by computers to look at patterns
          • Postal questionnaires may not be received by respondent, or may be addressed to wrong person.
          • Data can be limited and superficial due to brief answers
        • Scaled Questions
          • Easier to compare
          • Collected quickly
          • Shows to what extent the respondent agrees
          • Flexible
          • Easy to code and categorise
          • Favoured by positivists
          • Respondent cannot express emotions
          • If the scaled is even-numbered, there is no middle value - it is always closer to one side
          • Takes time to construct
          • Can express false impressions of attitudes
        • Ethical Issues
          • Respondents do not have to answer questions if they don't want to.
          • Researchers can gain informed consent, and right to withdraw.
          • Researchers may ask leading questions that influence respondent's answers
          • Shipman: Researchers "prune and blend" data
        • Closed/Fixed Choice Questions
          • Favoured by Positivists who see responses as social facts.
          • Data can be collected quickly.
          • Easier to code
          • Easier to compare
          • More likely to answer about sensitive topics
          • Less literate people have no disadvantage
          • Not favoured by Interpretivists; poor for collecting information about feelings and emotions
          • Lacks detail
          • Desired answer may not be an option
          • Simplistic responses to big issues
          • Not a range of choice in answers
      • Desired answer may not be an option
      • Simplistic responses to big issues
      • Not a range of choice in answers

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