Research Methods

  • Created by: chlopayne
  • Created on: 10-04-19 12:50
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  • Research Methods
    • Issues and debates
      • Deterministic = behaviour is controlled by factors
        • Strength: Scientific.
        • Weakness: people have no control over behaviour, legal system.
      • Free will - control their behaviour
        • Strength: held accountable.
        • Weakness: unscientific.
      • Reducationist- simple components
        • Strength: scientific, able to test.
        • Weakness:  oversimplify, limited to explain.
      • Holistic - systems as a whole
        • Strength: takes into account complex interactions.
        • Weakness: less scientific, can't make predictions .
      • Nature - behaviour is innate
      • Nurture - behaviour is learnt through environment
      • Idiographic - individual behaviour
        • Strength: understand individuals, insight into behaviour.
        • Weakness: can't be generalised, limits usefulness.
      • Nomothetic- general laws of behaviour
        • Strength: scientific, make predictions.
        • Weakness: ignores uniqueness.
    • Types of methods
      • Experimental: investigation which a hypothesis is tested. Investiagtor manipulates the IV and the DV is measured.
        • Laboratory - controlled environment, including variables. Participants know they're being controlled.
          • Field - natural environment, variables not easily controlled, IV manipulated, participants aware.
            • Quasi - IV isn't manipulated, can't conclude changes.
              • Natural - can't manipulate the IV, DV is measured as an effect of the IV.
        • Experimental design.
          • Independent groups - different participants are used in each, different condition.
            • Repeated measures - same participants take part in each, different condition.
              • Matched pairs - participants are matched in terms of similar variables.
        • Hypothesis - what you believe to be true.
          • Null - no relationship between variables.
          • Alternative hypothesis - variables have a relationship.
        • Operationalising variables - easily tested.
          • Extraneous - variables you are not intentionally studying.
          • Confounding - factors other than the IV that may cause a result.
      • Self-report techniques: method of gathering data where participants provide information
        • Questionnaire
          • Closed questions - yes/no.
            • Open questions - allows description.
          • Strengths: cheap and quick, more honest
          • Weakness: social desirability, leading, may misunderstand, issues with gaining results.
        • Interview
          • Structured - list of questions.
            • Unstructured - flexibility.
          • Strengths: detailed, pilot, can discuss sensitive issues.
          • Weakness: time and expense, social desirability bias.
      • Observations: controlled and natural. Participant where the researcher gets involved. Overt are aware they're being studied and covert if when they are unaware.
        • Structured: behavioural categories.
          • Unstructured: observer notes everything.
        • Strengths: low in demand characteristics, high in ecological validity, easy to conduct.
        • Weakness: ethical issues, observer bias, attention.
    • Sampling techniques
      • Target population refers to a group of people the researcher is interested in.
        • Sampling frame - where a researcher draws the sample from.
      • Sampling methods
        • Random
          • target population has an equal chance
        • Opportunity
          • who is available and willing to take part from target population
        • Systematic
          • orderly way from target population (nth)
        • Stratified
          • types of people and proportions needed (gender)
        • Quota
          • representative data
        • Self-selected
          • participants volunteer
        • Snowball
          • participants recruit others
    • Reliability - repeated.
      • Validity - true.
        • Internal validity - inside the study
          • Situational variables - factors in the environment.
          • Order effects - order the conditions are presented.
          • Participant effect - react to cues.
          • Participant variables - characteristics.
          • Investigator effect - what the investigator does.
        • External validity - generalised beyond the study.
          • Population validity - generalise to other groups?
          • Context validity - apply to other situations?
          • Temporal validity - will it endure over time?

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