Sociological Methods

  • Created by: brooke34
  • Created on: 28-01-19 13:30
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  • Research Methods
    • Triangulation
      • Uses more than one method to collect data (qual and quan)
      • ADVANTAGES - can compensate for the limitations of other methods
      • Barker - Making a Moonie.
      • DISADVANTAGES -  It can be time consuming and expensive to run over a period of time
    • Interviews
      • Structured
        • Questions are asked then recorded by interviewer.
        • ADVANTAGES - reliable as standardised. can explain if they don't uinderstand
        • DISADVANTAGES - time consuming and may get bias replies. Typically quan data
        • Willmott and Young  Crime survey
      • Unstructured
        • SImilar to a conversation as questions not fixe.
        • ADVANTAGES - natural so valid results, can answer in own words, can observe body language
        • DISADVANTAGES -  less reliable as all will respond different, smaller sample and time consuming
        • Wilson and Jones and Zoe James
      • Semi Structured
        • A mix between the two - a set of questions but can stray slightly.
        • Bradshaw and University of Sussex (lad culture)
        • ADVANTAGES-  avoid flaws of others gain qual and quan data.
        • DISADVANTAGES -  can't be standardised so less reliable could be interviewer bias
    • Observations
      • Participant Observation
        • Covert
          • Taking part and studying in secret
          • Willis and Ferrell
          • ADVANTAGES - reveal deeper meaning, high in validity
          • DISADVANTAGES - how to gain access, have to reply on memory
        • Overt
          • Takes part in life and studies openly
          • ADVANTAGES - ethically sound, easy to record data
          • DISADVANTAGES - hawthorne effect , hard to know how far to get involved
          • Willis and Cohen
      • Non-Participant Observation
        • Stan Cohen and Waddington et al
        • Being with the group but not part of it
        • ADVANTAGES - easy to record data and good for quan data.
        • DISADVANTAGES - haw-throne effect , can't fully experience.
    • Questonnaires
      • List of questions(paper or electronic) read and respond with their answers.
      • ADVANTAGES - quick and cheap. Can access a large sample quickly. High reliability
      • DISADVANTAGES - might not be clear, only allow quan data, may lie
      • Crime Survey Bradshaw gang members
    • Focus Groups
      • ADVANTAGES - explore detail, quick to gain multiple views
      • get a group to discuss particular topic with mediator
      • DISADVANTAGES - may not share,  unrepresentative?
      • Willis - learning to labour Zoe James - Gypsies
    • Content Analysis (media)
      • Looking at the media and comparing the coverage
      • Vandijk / Britstol Fawcett Society
      • DISADVANTAGES -  its geographically selective, bias to certain groups
      • ADVANTAGES - diffusion of culture, its always available, cheap to access
    • Official Statistics
      • Looks at quan data from previous research
      • ADVANTAGES - highlights knowledge gaps, make comparisons and focus on areas
      • DISADVANTAGES - is it relevant (valid) and there might be methodological issues
      • Offender crime survey
    • Personal Documents
      • analyse documents to try understand meaning.
      • ADVANTAGES - gives insight to thoughts and reveals things not at the time, avaliable
      • DISADVANTAGES - is it authentic? and is it valid?
      • Durkheim
    • Longitudinal Study
      • Having regular check ups on the same sample to see  changes.
      • ADVANTAGES - can see the development over a period of time.
      • DISADVANTAGES - can be time consuming
      • Bradshaw - Gang members Vandijk - Media on the black
    • Case Study
      • Detailed study based one situation/ person / event.
      • ADVANTAGES - Provides detailed qualitative data
      • DISADVANTAGES -  lacks reliability as can't be repeated.
      • Willis - Learning to labour   Wilson and Jones - **********
    • Replication Study
      • Repeating an already published study usually in different situations
      • ADVANTAGES - can check with result of previous study - high reliability
      • DISADVANTAGES - Is it valid? does the original look at what you are looking at?
      • Sharpe - Girls attitudes and aspirations.

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