Research Methods

  • Created by: imogenrey
  • Created on: 28-11-17 22:20
View mindmap
  • Research methods
    • interviews can be structured, semi-structured or unstructured.
      • Semi-structured interviews
        • Uses some preset questions but there is also some freedom within questions.
          • + allows for some freedom in answers as questions that a structured interview might miss might come up and prove useful
          • - procedure is not fully standardised so makes it harder to replicate and test fro reliability.
      • Structured interviews
        • Uses preset series of questions that the interviewer follows
          • - due to lack of choice may encourage demand characteristic and behaviour to be what is socially desirable. Lowering Validity.
          • + Standardised procedure allows for replication to test for reliability
      • Unstructured Interviews
        • No preset questions except the initial one to start interview
          • Topics can be investigated in further detail or answers can be elaborated on to provide more detail that other interviews might have missed.
          • - Analysis of these answers may be subjective as it may have to be interpreted by the researcher. This makes results more likely to be open to researcher bias.
      • Interviews can contain open or closed questions.
        • Closed Questions do not allow for in-depth answers, typically only requiring a yes or no response
          • Generally produce Quantitative data
          • + results can be objective and scientific as no subjective analysis is required. - often data is narrow and lacks detail
        • Open questions are questions which allow for an open, more detailed answer than a simple yes or no.
          • Generally produce qualitative data which has to be analysed
          • + rich and in-depth answers that allow for lots of detail.   -analysis of this is subjective and unscientific.
    • A Questionnaire may also be used.
      • Like Interviews these can use both open or closed questions or a mixture of both.
        • Therefore can produce both Quantitative and Qualitative data +
      • A questionnaire may be more appropriate than an interview in some scenarios. For example, if a large sample was used interviewing 100+ people is unrealistic.
      • One problem with  a questionnaire is that is may suffer from response bias where  participants don't give genuine answers. This can be solved with:
        • Reverse questions - e.g if a scale is used in the questionnaire is can be swapped around to ensure answers are actually genuine and see when they're not
        • Distractor questions - help to hide the objective of the questionnaire from participant so reduces response bias
      • Generally more representative than interviews as can give to much larger samples and isn't restricted by practical issues as much
    • Data collected can be either Primary or Secondard
      • Primary
        • Primary data is data that the researcher collected themselves. Therefore it has greater relevance to the researcher.
          • May suffer from practical issues and has ethical issues unlike secondary data as is actually conducted.
      • Secondary
        • Secondary data uses pre-existing studies research. This may be to avoid practical issues like money/time constraints
          • However, it may have less relevance to the researcher as the studies won't necessarily be following the same hypothesis etc.


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Methodology resources »