Research Methods

  • Created by: NatsChats
  • Created on: 14-11-17 13:15
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  • Research Methods
    • Features of Science
      • Objectivity
        • non-bias
      • Empirical Methods
        • Collecting data from direct observation of experiment
      • Falsifiability
        • Admit the possibility of being proven wrong, Hold themselves up fro hypothesis testing
          • Karl Popper - key criterion of being a scientific method
      • Replicability
        • all details of original study must be published to be repeated so you can compare results (REPLICABILITY = RELIABILITY)
      • Paradigm and Paradigm Shifts
        • agreed methods within scientific dicipline
          • Thomas Kuhn- Psychology isn't a science as it lacks universally accepted paradigms
      • Theory Construction &Hypothesis Testing
        • use facts to construct theories
        • understand and predict natural phenomena
        • general collection of principles that explain observations and facts
    • Conventions for reporting psychological investigations
      • Abstract
        • summary covering all main headings
          • So the reader can see whole study at a glance
      • Introduction
        • review of previous research leading to a rationale for why the researcher intend to conduct their study
          • after the introduction the researcher may state the hypothesis
      • Results
        • descriptive statistics (e.g. graphs, tables, averages)
        • Inferential statistics (stats tests)
      • Discussion
        • researchers explainations of behaviours they observed and implications of results for future research
      • Method
        • Design - justification of method and ethical consideration
        • Population - participants (sampling)
        • Materials - what was used
        • Procedure - exactly how the study was carried out
      • References
    • Validating new knowledge and role of peer review
      • Purpose
        • System of quality assurance, to ensure any research conducted and published is of high quality
      • Process
        • three psychologists/referees (experts in their field)  receive reports to analyse and ocmment on
      • Pitfalls
        • findings that support hypotheses
      • Work will only be published if it makes an important contribution to the scientific field and the research is methodologically and ethically sound
    • Inferential Statistics
      • Probability
      • Allow researchers to draw conclusions about research (tell likelihood of chance)
      • Bar Chart
        • Nominal
          • Data that falls in separate categories (e.g. above 6ft and below 6ft)
      • Scattergram
        • Interval
          • Data measured using units of equal intervals (e.g. difference in height)
      • Histogram
        • At-least Ordinal
      • Line Graph
        • Ordinal
          • Data ordered (e.g. height)
      • Significance
        • 5% level is regarded as a minimum
      • Type 1 and 2 error
        • 1
          • optimistic
        • 2
          • pessimistic
      • Hypothesis
        • Experimental
          • Experiment
        • Alternative
          • any other method
        • Null
          • What wont happen
    • Stats Test
      • Test Of Difference
        • Unrelated (Independent)
          • Chi - Squared
            • Nominal
            • Related (matched pairs or repeated measures)
              • Sign test
                • Nominal
              • Wilcoxon
                • Ordinal
              • Related  T-Test
                • Interval
          • Mann-Whitney
            • Ordinal
          • Unrelated T-Test
            • Interval
        • Related (matched pairs or repeated measures)
          • Sign test
            • Wilcoxon
              • Related  T-Test
            • Test of Association or Correlation
              • Spearman's Rho
                • Pearson's R
                • The rule of "R"
              • Ethics
                • Informed Consent
                  • Participants must make an informed decision about their contribution and potential consequences in the experiment
                • Protection from Harm
                  • Researchers must protect participants from physical and mental harm
                • Deception
                  • withholding information or misleading participants is unacceptable if they are likely to object or still show unease after debrief
                • Confidentiality
                  • Privacy of individuals and organisations are kept confidential (participants identities should never be revealed)
                • Right to Withdraw
                  • Participants must be aware they can withdraw at any time without reason and their datat will be destroyed
                    • Participants can also refuse to answer certain questions or not take part in certain aspects if they wish

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