Research Methods 

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  • RESEARCH METHODS
    • Experiments & Techniques
      • Lad experiment- conducted in a artificial environment
        • High control Casual relationship Replication
        • Demand characteristic  Informed consent
      • Field experiment-carried out in a natural environment of those being tested
        • Casual relationship Demand characteristic
        • No control Ethics (Privacy)
      • Natural experiment-  conducted in the everyday environment of the participants but no control
        • No demand characteristic very high ecological validity
        • Time consuming   No control
      • Quasi experiment-No random application
        • Controlled conditions Ecological validity
        • No casual relationship Biased
      • Observational technique-a researcher is watching someone behaviour
        • Ecological validity
          • Ethics (Privacy) Observer is biased
      • Correlation researcher-finding out the relationship between variables
        • +/-Casual relationship Ethics (Study)
      • Questionnaire-a set of questions on paper
        • Large sample Not expensive
          • Not done face to face   People may lie
      • Interviews-asked questions face to face
        • nearly everyone can take part Provides rich data
        • Time consuming Analysing data is hard
      • Case Studies-an in depth study of an individual person
        • Provides rich data    Provides ideas for future data
        • No informed      consent     No casual relationship
      • Content analysis-analyzing secondary data by putting them into categories
        • It's cheap       Not many ethical issues
        • Time consuming    Its subjective (your own opinion)
    • Experimental design
      • Repeated-participants take part in their conditions more than                once          -Requires fewer people    -Control of individual differences
        • Order effects Time consuming
      • Independent-participants take part in one condition  -No order             effects             -No lost particapants
        • Double the participants Individual differences may effect results
      • Matched-groups are based on characteristic   -  No order           effects           -No individual differences
        • Time consuming You may need double the particpants
      • Aims & Hypthosis
        • Aim-why the study is being carried out
        • Null hypothesis-states if there is no difference
        • Directional-predicts the direction of the results
        • Non-directional-does not predict the direction of the results
    • Ethics
      • Informed consent-Consent should be given by the parents
      • Deception-the need of deception is agreed by ethics comettee
      • Right to withdraw-parents should be informed that they have the right to withdraw
      • Protection from harm-avoid any risks in the study
      • Confidentiality-private information should not be given away
    • Validlty & Reliability
      • External validity-data that is generalized beyond the stetting: people, places and time
      • Internal validity- results be linked to direct manipulation of the independent variable
      • External reliability-the test measures over time/people
      • Internal reliability-whether the test is stable
    • Sampling
      • Volunteer-people volunteered to be in study by responding to advert.             - Easy method -Biased population      
      • Target population-a group of people needed for the study
      • Random-an equal chance of being picked from the list examples: toss a coin
        • -if done right the sample is successful
        • -hard to identify the members
      • Opportunity-selecting people for availability         -Easy method to use  -Researcher is biased

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