Research 1-5

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  • Created by: clararose
  • Created on: 22-04-16 09:21
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  • Research Methods
    • Approaches to Research
      • Topic chosen by the researcher governs the methods that are used.
      • If the researcher needs reliable, factual data related to numbers, patterns and trends, then quantitative, scientific approaches are best.
      • If the researcher is seeking emotional depth and meaning then qualitative research is used.
      • Modern Research, most studies used a combination of methods in order to increase understanding of both patterns and meanings.
      • All research should aim to be valid, reliable and ethical.
    • The process of research design.
      • All research is carried out in a systematic fashion that can be understood by others.
      • The design process is crucial to the research because poorly designed research will not produce valid evidence or conclusions.
      • Key terms need to be operationalized, methods and approaches selected, ethics committees consulted, samples and populations identified and methods should be tested to see if they will work and then the research can begin.
    • Roles of ethics in research design
      • It is essential that researchers and participants in research are protected from harm and there are a number of procedures that must be followed before research can proceed.
      • Poorly designed or intrusive research may have unpredictable consequences so ethics committees scrutinise proposed research.
      • Sometimes compromises must be made, especially when dealing with crime and other socially sensitive topics. A balance to be made between ethical principles and being fair to respondents.
      • Importantly, no one should undertake research without being trained and qualified.
    • Sampling and Research design
      • Scientific research should be as representative and as generalizable to wider populations as is possible. Quantitative researchers use purposive sample methods which will generate sample that's are free from bias. These are generally described as random sampling methods.
      • Qualitative research is less concerned with representativeness and generalizability, as it is descriptive. Opportunity and convenience sample are often used which involved small groups of respondents.
      • There can be a problem of accessing sample groups. Not everyone wishes to participate in research projects. Gate keepers who introduce the researcher to the sample and act as a guide may help researchers.
    • Survey techniques and research design
      • A survey is a study that is intended to gather a large amount of data. Generally the sample is larger and quantitative methods are used.
      • Information is gathered in a standardised procedure so it usually consists of a self -report questionnaire or a highly structured interview.
      • Longitudinal surveys generally follow over a population over a long period of times, returning to and retuning to and repeating a similar study procedure each time to show patterns and trends.
      • Surveys are often used to gather official statics for reports on social problems and issues.


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