The nature of genetic engineering including cloning

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  • The nature of genetic engineering, including cloning
    • Genetic engineering is the modification of characteristics of organisms by manipulation of genetic material
    • Medical issues are using techniques of gene development and manipulation to find cures or prevention of diseases and disabilities in humans
    • Most genetic research is based on:
      • Germline gene therapy
        • This helps genetic changes to be made to cells which transmit information from one generation to the next. this enables permanent changes to be made
      • Pre- implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)
        • Removes defective genes from embryos so that women at risk of producing babies with defective genes will produce healthy babies
    • Stem cell research
      • Cloning is used to grow healthy cells to replace malfunctioning ones which cure disease
      • Legal-February 2001 Stem cell research in the UK
        • May 2008- Scientists can use human- animal embryos for medical research. These stem cells could be used to help cure diseases
      • These stem cells are kept alive so they can increases and be transplanted into bad cells to produce cures
      • This creates stem cells from either embryos from IVF treatment or from adult bone marrow or blood

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