AQA GCSE Biology Unit 1 1.7 Reproduction

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  • Reproduction
    • Sexual
      • Requires two parent's gametes. Each gamete contains 23, when an egg fertilized there are 46 chromosomes
        • Gives a zygote that developes into an embroyo
    • Asexual
      • No fusion of gametes so a clone is produced
        • CLONE- Genetically identical to it's parent
      • Gardens use this to create new plants that are genetically identical to the parent (clones)
        • Only requires one plant
        • Quicker than growing seeds
        • No genetic diversity
        • We know the new plants characteristics
        • Possibility of extinction as clones can't adapt
        • Cloning
          • Tissue culture
            • Tissue sample scraped from parent plant
              • Plant material transferred into plates containing sterile nutrient agar jelly
                • Hormones added to stimulate cells to divide
                  • Cells grow rapidly into small tissue masses
                    • more hormone is added to stimulate the growth of roots and stems
                      • Tiny plantlets are transferred into potting trays where they develop into plants
          • Embryo transplants
            • Both sex cells are taken from selected species
              • Gametes fuse in a dish
                • Each fertilised egg grows into an embryo
                  • Embryo cells are separated and planted into different host mothers
                    • embryos that develop are identical to their siblings
          • Adult cell cloning
            • The nucleus is removed from an unfertilized egg cell.
              • Nucleus inserted into cell, and an electric shock is given so the cell begins to divide to form embryo cells (same genetic info as body cell)
                • The nucleus from an adult body cell
                • embryo is inseted into the womb of and adult
            • The nucleus from an adult body cell
            • prevents extinction
            • reduced variation
            • Unsafe
            • Shorter lifespan
            • unethical
    • Cloning
      • Tissue culture
        • Tissue sample scraped from parent plant
          • Plant material transferred into plates containing sterile nutrient agar jelly
            • Hormones added to stimulate cells to divide
              • Cells grow rapidly into small tissue masses
                • more hormone is added to stimulate the growth of roots and stems
                  • Tiny plantlets are transferred into potting trays where they develop into plants
      • Embryo transplants
        • Both sex cells are taken from selected species
          • Gametes fuse in a dish
            • Each fertilised egg grows into an embryo
              • Embryo cells are separated and planted into different host mothers
                • embryos that develop are identical to their siblings
      • Adult cell cloning
        • The nucleus is removed from an unfertilized egg cell.
          • Nucleus inserted into cell, and an electric shock is given so the cell begins to divide to form embryo cells (same genetic info as body cell)
            • embryo is inseted into the womb of and adult
        • prevents extinction
        • reduced variation
        • Unsafe
        • Shorter lifespan
        • unethical

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