Representations of Gender

  • Created by: HBN_18
  • Created on: 24-04-19 14:51
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  • Representations of Gender
    • Females
      • Femme Fatales
        • Concerned with beauty and romance and being good partners
      • Sex Object
        • Sexually Seductive Scantily clad figure
      • Supermum
        • Happy home-maker who focuses on childbearing and housework
      • Angel
        • Sensitive and domesticated
      • Ball Breaker
        • Sexual active, selfish and independent
      • Victim
        • Always victimised in movies with men being the cause and the saviour
      • Neo-Marxists and Marxists
        • Women are portrayed through the Male Gaze
          • Men see women as sexual objects
        • Leveson Inquiry Report 2012
          • Found that Tabloids failed to show respect and the equality of women
            • With an added tendency to sexuality and demean women
      • Under-representation of women in the media industry
        • IWMF (International Women's Media Foundation) 2010
          • Women working in news companies face the glass ceiling
            • Glass Ceiling
              • Invisible barrier of discrimination making it difficult for women to reach the top level of their career compared to similarly qualified  men
            • Women in Journalism Study 2011
              • 74% of news journalists were men
      • Under-representation in media content
        • Women are the subject of news stories far less the men
          • Global Media Monitoring Project (2010)
            • 76% of people heard or read about in the news were male compared to 24% female
          • Also 4x more likely to be identified by their family status e.g Mrs, Mother of Two
        • Women in narrower range of roles
          • Conforming  to-stereotypes
        • Older women even more unrepresented
          • Martinson (2012)
            • Women over 50 make up just 5% of on-screen presenters
      • Symbolic Annihilation
        • Tuchman et al (1978)
          • Women are either invisible, under-represented or represented in a limited range of stereotyped roles
      • Cult of femininity
        • Ferguson (1983)
          • Magazines prepared girls for feminised adult roles
            • These socialise young girls into stereotyped values and roles of femininity
          • This cult of femininity included theme such as getting and keeping a partner, being a good wife, keeping the family happy, what to wear e.t.c
    • Males
      • The Joker
        • Uses laughter to avoid showing emotion
      • The Jock
        • Avoids seeming soft and shows aggression to demonstrate his power
      • The Strong Silent Type
        • Acts decisively, avoids talking about his feeling as it is a sign of weakness
      • The Big Shot
        • Economically and socially successful
      • The Action Hero
        • Strong and shows extreme aggression
      • The Buffoon
        • Hopeless when it come to parenting pr domestic matters
          • Suggesting men shouldn't do these things
      • More-likely to be voice overs in TV
      • More likely to be seen as presenters and therefore reinforcing men as authority figures
      • Hegemonic masculine identity see men as assertive, dominant and rational
        • Gilmore (1991)
          • Stereotyped  as the provider, the protector and the impregnator
            • Even though this is not as exclusive as female stereotypes
      • The above are the stereotypes that reinforce the 'Masks of Masculinity'
        • According to three related American reports ( Children Now 1999)
    • Theorists
      • Pluralists
        • Stereotyping occurs because that's what the audience wants
          • Media organisation need to attract audiences and make profit and so that is what they provide
        • Liberal Feminists
          • Media content is the result of under-representation of women as CEO's, editors and journalists
            • This encourages a male view of the world
              • Change will come when women have more power and opportunities
          • Marxists and Marxists feminists
            • Radical Feminists
              • Representations arise from the necessity to promote and reproduce patriarchy
                • The media seeks to keep women in a narrow range of stereotyped roles where the conform to subordination
                  • Media-generated stereotyped of femininity discourages women from making the most of opportunities and undermine the threat to males dominance in society
            • Gender representations are driven by patriarchal ideology bu emphasise that this ideology is linked to social class inequality
              • Media owners make profit by attracting advertisers and the advertisers need stereotypes to encourage the sales of cosmetics, fashions, diet e.t.c
                • Cyndi Tebbel the editor of New women magazine 1996
                  • Featured a size 16 model and a major advertiser company pulled out and she later resigned
                • WC women can least afford to participate
    • Are stereotypes changing?
      • Postmodernism
        • McRobbie (1996)
          • There is more fluidity in the representations of men and women in the media.
          • Popular feminism has emerged in the youth
            • in which women are more in control. more confidant, ambitious and independent
        • Gauntlett (2008)
          • Growing social expectations that women and men should be treated equally an this is beginning to be  reflected in the media
      • Pluralists
        • There is more emphasis on female Independence
          • New magazines now cater for working women
            • Showing reduced gender stereotyping as women demand more from the media than increasing outdated stereotypes
      • Innes (1999)
        • Study of female roles in TV roles
          • Found that women are being presented more as powerful 'tough girls'
            • Therefore female roles are becoming more assertive, more resourceful and more complex
              • EXAMPLE
                • Katniss Everdeen from The Hunger Games
                  • Lara Croft in the Tomb Raider
      • Knight (2010)
        • Women are still conforming to the male gaze and the beauty myth and posing no threat to the patriarchal society
          • as seen in women like Angelina Jolie and Lucy Lui
          • However female actions heroes and other gender representations are at least opening up choices for girls to choose new identities
      • Gauntlett (2008)
        • Media portrayals of men are also changing
          • New male identities such as the Emo Boy and the New Man
            • These are more caring and emotional and more in touch with their feminist side
            • Male bodies are also becoming more sexualised in advertisment
      • WHY?
        • New Media allows both men and women to challenge the way they are represented
        • Women are becoming more successful in society and traditional stereotypes have no appeal to them
        • Advertisements need to make profit and have found a way to tap into the lucrative men's  market.

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