Religion and Morality


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  • Religion and morality
    • Intro
      • 3 broad views on conn
        • dependent (esch)
        • Independent (exist)
        • opposed
      • Ethical obligations
        • comm with auth behind them
        • look at source of auth behind them
          • sec eth
            • soc/ fam/ tea/ law
          • theists
            • God
        • suff to say that sole ground for them being mor ob's is ? they have been comm by God
    • 1st para
      • link explained by D.C.T
        • actions ?/?  ? God comm/ proh them
        • only direct revelation --> scripture, can give us fiuxed/ firm mor inst
          • e.g. Decalogue
        • Do as your creator tells you
          • e.g 10 comm --> tell us how to live our lives --> tells us what's ?/?
            • helps show that mor = dep on rel
              • shows that the Decalogue & rel directly controls our mor actions
    • 2nd para
      • Aquinas (1225-1274) though that mor dep on rel
        • Summa Theologica
          • God = perfection --> has to be a max level of goodness     --> this is God
          • "Among beings there are some more good and some less good... there must be something which to all beings the cause of their being, goodness and every other perfection, and this we call God"
          • God is the source of morality --> he is the greatest level of goodness     --> to which we all compare
            • suggests mor is dep on rel
              • "man who loves what is truly good, loves God"
    • 3rd para
      • Kant (1724-1804) though that mor dep on rel
        • believed in necessary postulate
          • God exists ? of morality
            • moral actions require the existence of God
              • Without God, supreme goodness would be an unrealistic dream
        • has to be a God --> that is how we are awarded on j. day
        • Categorical imperative
          • we have ability to reason what's ?/? ? of the N.P
        • Post mortem existence
          • the achievement where the S.B is accomplished
            • Summum Bonum --> the state of pure virtue crowned with prefect happiness
              • supports idea that mor is dep on rel
    • 4th para
      • Eschatology
        • explains how mor is dep on rel
        • you choose to be mor ? of conseq of heav/ hell depending on how mor you act
          • as mor judged on j. day --> shows link ? mor is directly linked to God and heaven & hell
    • 5th para
      • Plato (427-347 BC) --> needs to be a God
        • world = reflection of God
        • Aquinas based arg on Plato's external args
    • 6th para
      • Dostoyevsky, Brothers Karamzov
        • "If God is dead, everything is permitted"
        • God = lynchpin or order & morality in soc
        • Unable to reject belief in God --> God is necessary for mor
          • Suggests mor is dep on rel
      • Copleston (1907-1994)
        • "All goodness reflects God"
          • links idea of rel & mor
            • saying God made morals & reflects to man
        • you love God whether you know it or not & God loves you
      • Conc
    • Part B
      • 1st Para
        • however, is extent to which....
          • e.g. Russell (1872-1970) believed mor ? dep on rel
            • "I don't say things are good ? they participate in divine  goodness"
              • suggests God ? create morals ? rel & mor ? conn --> makes arg unsuc
      • 2nd para
        • Euth Dilemma
          • q's whether " God comm.... or ...... God comm it"
            • Suggests God ? decide what's ?/? just that he comm mor
              • God ? be mor himself - may comm imm act, but makes it mor by comm it
                • Socrates' answer --> "What is morally ? ? nec always pious"
                  • Suggests that arg = unsuc
      • 3rd para
        • Existentialism
          • someone who is mor for own reasons ? want to be mor, not ? rel tells them to be & ? inf by heaven/ hell
            • suggests arg is unsuc ? it shows link bet mor ? being conn/ dep on rel
      • 4th para
        • God comm imm actions
          • e.g. Job --> God's servant
            • to sec eth --> seen as imm which ?  suggests that mor ? dep on rel
              • otherwise actions like that ? be allowed to happen
      • 5th para
        • rel mor enc mor standards which opposed to sec soc
          • e.g. Nietzsche rej xianity & belief in God as he believed it
            • "enc 'slave mor' by which suff & weaknesses were admiredwhich believers were discouraged from avenging wrong & instead showed forgiveness"
              • suggests that rel ? always mor --> sugg that arg is unsuc
          • A.C. Grayling warned rel is irrel in contemp soc
            • "there is a widespread supposition that a religious ethic has to be good for indivs and soc ? it is inherently more likely to make them good"
              • this suggests that we only bel that a rel ethic has to be good, not that it is good
            • "rel is precisely the wrong resource for thinking about mor issues in the contemp world, and indeed subverts mor debate"
              • argues ag idea that mor is dep on rel....unsuc
      • Conc
        • I believe mor ? conn to rel --> linked to conscience
          • allows us to feel guilt when committed immoral action
        • laws linked to decalogue --> common sense
        • Pope John Paul II
          • "the conscience is something which all humans have as a gift from God" (Romans 2:12)
          • "our conscience enables us to hear Gof, depsite their sinful nature and those who follow God will gain eternal life" (Romans 3:21-22)

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