Religion and development

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  • Religion and development
    • Globalisation
      • Brought rapid economic growth in India and rising prosperity to a new middle class.
        • Nanda - Hinduism legitimises the rise of a new Hindu 'ultra-nationalism' and the prosperity of the Indian middle class.
      • Globalisation has created a scientifically educated, urban middle class - secularisation theory predicts these will be the first to abandon religion.
        • Survey(2007) - Indians becoming more religious, only 5% said their religiosity declined.
      • Nanda - rejects poverty, modernisation/ westernisation and existential insecurity as a reason to what motivates spohisticated m/c to believe in miracles and supernatural beings.
      • M/c increasing religiosity is the result of their many emotions about their newfound wealth.
        • This creates a tension between traditional Hindu belief in renouncing material and wordly desires, and the new prosperity of the m/c.
      • This tension is resolved by tele-gurus and holy men preaching that desire isn't bad, but a manifestation of divinity that motivates people to do things.
        • Also teach m/c consumerism can be 'spiritually balanced' by paying for the performance of appropriate/ extravagant rituals.
      • These modern versions legitmate the position of m/c and allow them to adjust to globalised consumer capitalism.
    • Ultra-nationalism
      • India's success in the glocal market is increasingly due to the superiority of 'Hindu values'.
        • It's constantly promoted by the media and politicians and the idea that Hinduism is the essence of Indian culture and identity.
      • The worship of Hindu gods has become the same as worshipping the nation of India - Hinduism = civil religion, which creates a split between Hindus and non-Hindus.
      • Has penetrated public life.
        • Education - 'Hindu sciences' like astrology to supposedly predict naural disasters.
        • Ministry of Defence - sponsoring reasearch and development of weapons and devices with magical powers mentioned in the ancient Hindu texts.
        • Health ministry - investigating in research and development of cow urine as a cure from AIDS and TB.
    • Capitalism in East Asia
      • 'Tiger economies' - South Korea, Taiwan, have succesfully industrialised and become significant players in the glocal economy.
      • Success of capitalism is linked to religion - Calvinism.
        • Redding - the spirit of capitalism among Chinese entrepreneurs is due to their 'post-Confucian' values which enourage hard-work, self-discipline and a commitment to education.
        • The effectiveness is similar to the Protestant ethic as it lead to economic productivity and the accumulation of capital.
    • Pentecostalism in Latin America
      • Berger - acts as a 'functional equivalent' to the Protestant ethic, as they encourage a work ethic and a ascetic lifestyle.
      • Pentecostalism has astrong affinity eit modern capitalism.
      • Berger agrees with Weber that this is needed to promote economic development and raise a society out of poverty.
        • This process can be lead by an active minority with an ethic of this wordly asceticism like the Pentecostalists.
          • E.g. southern Brazil there is now a growing and prosperous Pentecostalist middle class leading capitalist developement.
    • Lehmann
      • Two reasons as to why Christianity has globalised from Europe to South America and Africa.
        • 1st - Christianity accompanied colonoisation and ws imposed on the native populations by invasion of restraining local religions.
        • 2nd - gained popular followers.
      • Petecostalism creates new local religious forms, incorporating existing local beliefs rather than replacing them.
      • In Africa it has led to the 'Africanisation' of Christianity.
      • Successful in developing countres as it appeals to the poor which makes most of the population and it uses global communications media - road shows, 'celebrity' preachers.


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