Religion James 1603-25

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  • Religion, James
    • Attitudes to Catholics
      • Distrust after the war with the Spanish which broke out in 1580s.
        • Increased recusancy fines as Catholics involved with plots with Mary.
        • 146 Catholics executed between 1586-1603.
      • James at first was moderate, not persecuting any who were quiet and reducing recusancy fines to 1/4 what they were.
        • 1604 all Priests and Jesuits ordered out of kingdom and November, recusancy reissued.
          • Parliament wanted 'due execution of statues,' against any 'manner of recusants,' and James was desperate for union.
    • Gunpowder Plot 1605
      • 5 November 1605
      • After the war with Spain ended in 1604, there were no hopes of foreign intervention
      • Robert Catesby(1572-1605), a recusant family member involved in the Essex rebellion against Elizabeth, 1601, was one of the key plotters.
      • A tunnel was to be dug under the Houses of Parliament to kill the King and MPs with one stroke.
      • Plan found out when a letter was sent to a relative.
      • Plotters came from gentry families most affected by recusancy fines.
      • Results
        • Venetian ambassador claimed James was 'in terror,' eating his meals in private and living in innermost rooms with 'only Scotsmen.'
        • Penal laws issued to hold public office.
        • Catholics could not live in or around London.
        • Oath of allegiance to deny pope's authority to depose kings.
    • Puritans
      • Had 1603 Millenary Petition signed by 1000 to James, wanting to cleanse CofE of popish practise.
      • James disliked Presbyterianism and wanted ordered Church.
      • Issues
        • At Hampton Court, Jan 1604, bishops and Puritans had much to discuss.
        • Pluralism occurred due to low stipends, wages, so clergymen had to hold more than one living, the post of a parish priest.
        • Inadequate pastoral care.
    • Hampton Court Conference
      • Disputation between 5 Puritans and 9 bishops led by Charles.
      • Agreement on the Authorised or King James Bible, 1611, which would be read for 300 years.
      • Puritans failed on most demands; requesting removal of bishops would be radical but James saw wanting no surplice as trivial.
      • Bishops failed with campaigning and gaining a following, so a petitioning campaign was developed. James didn't want undue pressure and feared a Presbyterian Church.
        • He would be subject to the same discipline as any other member.
          • No bishops, no king!
      • Outcome
        • No issues by Puritans mentioned.
          • Puritans and Catholics agreed on the problems with dissolution of monasteries in late 16th century.
            • Put church in lay hands with tithes, 1/10 of income taxed to ministers, held from parishes.
              • Church in poverty. In 1610, James appointed Puritan Archbishop of Canterbury, George Abbot.
                • Fewer popish ceremonies and more preaching, less Puritans denied livings.
    • Arminians
      • James was Calvinist, following preaching of John Calvin who set up strict Church in Geneva.
        • Believed in predestination and preaching.
      • Disliked Calvinist Church organisation.
      • Arminians, led by Dutch theologian Jacob Arminius, believed in free will and ceremonial services/sacraments.
        • Saw Catholic Church as true church but did not accept papal authority.
        • In 1620s when James was involved in the negotiations with Spain, protests against Catholics mounted.
        • Arminians upheld royal authority. James promoted Arminians, making the Commons suspicious.
    • Religion in Scotland
      • Wanted conformity and removed nobles from Kirk alliance.
      • Introduced bishops in 1618.
      • Liturgical reforms such as the Articles of Perth were very unpopular, enforced through General Assembly, including kneeling at Communion.
      • Catholic interpretation
      • Articles not strictly enforced and in 1619 a new prayer book was NOT introduced.
    • Ireland
      • 1607 - 2 Earls of Ulster fled into exile after failed rebellion, and Calvinist Scots and English settlers stole their land, plantation.
      • There was the Catholic majority, the Church of Ireland mostly Calvinist in belief, and a minority of Presbyterians.

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