AQAPSY3 Relationships - Evolutionary Explanations of Human Reproductive Behaviour Mindmap

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  • Created on: 07-11-12 20:33
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  • Relationships - Evolutionary Explanations of Human Reproductive Behaviour
    • Sexual Differences in Parental Invesment - poss due to question over male genetics
      • Birkhead  '00 - 17 women awaiting fertility treatment pregnant husband no sperm
      • Trvers' Theory of Parental Investment '72 - more reporduction & parental care energy = choosier, human females gestation and childcare & time limit, mistake costly = choosy
        • Bel-Venner et al '08 - male orb-weaving spiders choosier if > competition
        • Werner & Lotem '03 - cichlid fish males choosy
        • Not always either choosy or competitive eg bi-parental care
      • Anderson '07 - decreased time if paternity unsure
      • Apicella & Marlowe '04 - increased male parental investment if kids resemble & woman loyal
    • Sexual  Selection & Human Reproductive Behaviour
      • Intra-sexual selection = sexual dimorphism of secondary sexual characteristics
        • Female orgasm
          • Shackleford et al '00 -to discriminate male quality, 388 US & German females qnnre, more attractive partner = more orgasms
          • Cervical contractions pull sperm closer to egg improving sperm competition
          • Pollet &  Nettle '09 - Chinese large survey, > income = > orgasms = higher quality
        • Sperm competition - multiple partners, fidelity vital
          • Sperm allocation - economical sperm allocation, more males more sperm v v, Packer & Pusey '83 - male lion copulates 100 x day few sperm each
          • Male Testis Size - female infidelity, chimps
        • Explanations of female mate choice
          • 'Sexy-sons' hypothesis - Fisher '30 -secondary sexual characteristics from female choice can lead to runaway process, stops if too costly
          • Handicap process - Zahavi '75 - survival despite handicap eg expense of Ferrari, sign of health
            • Parasite-mediated sexual selection - male handicap of superior secondary characteristics
        • Male aggression
          • Buss & Dedden '90 - female verbal aggression to decrease attractiveness of competition
          • Daly & Wilson '88 - 90% male murders by males mate competition age
      • Inter-sexual selection - fertile females v socio-economic status males
        • Noe & Hammerstein '95 - the Biological Marketplace - trade-off desirable traits & bargaining position
          • Campos et al ' 02 - supports, older women less demanding, older men more
          • Men 40-49 max resources preferred most fertile women v women 20-39 4.5 x more wealth wanted
          • Strassberg & Holty '03 - ads showed most popular women financially independent, successful, ambitious
          • Waynforth & Dunbar '95 - ads show human courtship same influences as animal
        • Buss '89 - cross-cultural, 37 countries, women want finances, symmetry, older, strong, men want symmetry, younger, healthy hip-to-waist ratio
    • Criticisms - unfalsifiable, behavioural trends, homosexuality, infertility & sex, choice not to procreate, monogamy after reproducing, social and cultural factors
  • Buss '89 - cross-cultural, 37 countries, women want finances, symmetry, older, strong, men want symmetry, younger, healthy hip-to-waist ratio

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