Relationships studies

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  • Relationships
    • Formation
      • Reward/Needs Satisfaction theory (byrne and Clore)
        • Support- Aron et al (questionnaire then tested dopamine levels)
        • Challenge- Hays (individuals prefer fairness and give partner priority)
      • Matching Hypothesis
        • Challenge- Walster (752 at freshers dance)
        • Support- Mustein (8 judge 197 couples attractiveness)
    • Maintenance
      • Equity Theory
        • Support- Stafford and Canary (200 married couples asked to fill in questionnaire, satisfaction was highst in those with percieved fairness
        • Challenge- Clark and Mills (exchange relationships keep count but communal relationships dont)
      • Social Exchange Theory (Thibaut and Kelley)
        • Support- Simpsn et al (asked to rate attractiveness of photos, those in relationships gave lower marks)
        • Challenge- Sedikides (relationship increases self esteem. we are capable of being altruistic when we bolster our partners self esteem
    • Breakdown (Rollie and Duck)
      • Support- Gray and Silver (Couples who had been married for 10 years, but filed for divorce, told story putting them in best light)
      • Challenge- Kassin (women say stress and incompatibility for breakup, men blame sex)
      • Challenge- Argyle (women say lack of emotional support men blame lack of fun)
    • Influence of culture
      • Support- LeVine et al (young people asked if they would marry someone they did not love, 49% of Indians and 7% British said yes
      • Challenge- Singh (beauty contest winners 0.7 WHR)
      • Challenge- Buss (Across cultures men rated looks important and women preferred older richer men)
    • Influence of childhood experiences (Bowlby)
      • Challenge- Zimmerman et al (studied group of German kids, found LE had more effect than child attachment type)
      • Chllenge- Rutter et al (Those who had insecure attachments can have good ships
      • Challenge- Richard and Schneider (Gender diffs, girls have more intimate friendships than boys)
    • Evolutionary approach to parental investment
      • Support- Clark and Hatfield (96 uni students asked for date or sex. equal M+F went on date, 75% M agreed to sex)
      • Suport- Geher (91 uni grads filled at parental investment perception scale, how they see themselves as parents in the future. No diff between M+F found. But hen asked questions males showed higher ANS arousal which shows they uncomfortable
    • Relationship between sexual selectiona and human reproduction
      • Supported- Buss (37 samples from 6 continents total of 10047 pps, asked what age want to marry and characteristics needed in a partner. Men rated looks important, women rated older with money important
      • Support- Singh (0.7 WHR)
      • Challenge- Strassberg and Holty (placed 4 females seeking male ads. most popular was "independent, successful and ambitious" above"lovely, slim and attractive")


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