Relationships

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  • Romantic Relationships
    • Social Exchange Theory
      • About how relationships are maintained.
      • Partners are always trying to maximise rewards and minimise costs.
      • The comparison level is the developed standard which we compare all our relationships against.
      • Sampling - Consider the potential rewards and costs of a relationship and compare it to other available relationships.
      • Bargaining - We give and receive rewards to test whether a deeper relationship is worthwhile.
      • Commitment - The relationship increases in predictability so each partner knows how to elicit rewards from the other, which lowers costs.
      • Institutionalisation - The relationship norms are developed which establishes the patterns of rewards and costs for each partner.
      • Linkage
        • Hatfield (1979) Newlyweds
          • Questioned newlyweds about their level of contentment in their marriage. Found that happiest people were those who felt the marriage was equal for both.
        • Buss (1989)
          • If evolutionary predictions of sex differences in mate partners would be found in different cultures. Questionnaire across 37 different samples that included personal information and relationship expectations. 36/37 of samples, women rated good financial prospects as being more important than men did. All samples, men wanted younger and women wanted older. All samples, men rated good looks as being more important than women did.
      • Real Life Examples
        • Blind Dates and Dating Websites. Sampling Stage of measuring costs and rewards.
    • Evolutionary Theory
      • Men look for younger women and physical attractiveness. As it shows she is fertile. Men sleep with lots of women to increase their chances of reproducing and passing in their genes. Quantity over quality.
      • Women look for financial stability and security, more picky with who she has sex with, as she can only produce one child at a time. Quality over quantity.
      • Inter-sexual Selection.
        • Strategy that males use to select females. Females use to select males.
      • Intra-sexual Selection.
        • Within each sex. Strategy between males to be the one that is selected.
      • Linkage
        • Buss (1989)
          • If evolutionary predictions of sex differences in mate partners would be found in different cultures. Questionnaire across 37 different samples that included personal information and relationship expectations. 36/37 of samples, women rated good financial prospects as being more important than men did. All samples, men wanted younger and women wanted older. All samples, men rated good looks as being more important than women did.
        • Clark and Hatfield (1989)
          • Investigate the differences in reproductive behaviour between men and women. Asked "Would you go on a date with me?" 50% men and 50% women said yes. "would you come back to my apartment?" 69% men and 6% women said yes. "Would you have sex with me?" 75% men and 0% women said yes.
      • Real Life Examples
        • Lonely Hearts Research
          • Studied 900 lonely hearts advertisement in 4 American newspapers. Found that women offered physical attractiveness and indicators of youth more than men. Men offered resources more.
        • Waist - Hip Ratio Research
          • Combination of wider hips and narrower waist is attractive as it is an honest signal that the woman is fertile and not currently pregnant.
    • Investment Theory
      • The comparison level is the developed standard which we compare all our relationships against.
      • When deciding on whether to continue a relationship or not, more has to be considered than just the current level of satisfaction. Potential alternative relationships and how much has already been invested into the relationship are also important.
      • Types of Investment
        • Intrinsic - The things we directly put into the relationship. E.g. effort, money, self disclosure.
        • Extrinsic - Things that are brought into the relationship. E.g. memories, children, future.
      • Maintenance Mechanisms
        • Accommodation - acting in a way that promotes relationships rather than keeping a tally.
        • Willingness to Sacrifice - putting partner's interests first.
        • Forgiveness - willingness to forgive partner's mistakes, both minor and serious ones.
        • Positive Illusions - being unrealistically positive about partner's qualities.
        • Ridiculing Alternatives - minimising the advantages of potential alternatives and viewing them in a negative light.
      • Real Life Examples
        • Abusive Relationships. Staying in an unhappy marriage.
      • Linkage
        • Rhahgan and Axsom (2006)
          • Refugee Women. Found that each of the three strands contributed to women staying with their partners.
        • Le and Agnew (2003)
          • Found that the three strands greatly contributed to commitment and was a defining feature of long lasting relationships.
    • Filter Theory
      • Proximity filter, which is when the people living around us or similar social class, education level, ethnicity or racial group.
      • Similarity filter, which is if our values and personality work with someone else's.
      • Complementary filter, which is when someone has the traits the other lacks.
      • Linkage
        • Festinger et al (1950). Apartments
          • 10x's more likely to form a friendship with people who lived in the same building. Most popular people was the ones who lived near stairs or post boxes, as most likely to bump into.
        • Gruber-Baldini et al (1995)
          • Longitudinal study of couples aged 21 found that those with similar educational level most likely to stay together and have a successful relationship.
      • Real Life Examples
        • Filters on Dating Websites.

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