Relationship between economic development and energy usage

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  • Relationship between economic development and energy usage
    • UK
      • Running out of significant reserves of oil and gas
      • By 2020 Britain will import about 3/4 of it's primary energy needs
      • Target of reduction of greenhouse gases by 60% by 2050
      • Main changes since 1990 have been a modest decline in petroleum, significant rise in gas, and a large decline in coal
      • Oil and Gas
        • Already used between 1/2 and 3/4 in it's territorial waters
        • Oil production peaked in 1990s, and has fallen about 30% to 2m barrels per day
        • More than 90% of gas comes from the North Sea
        • Gas imports are set to rise
        • New techniques being employed in the North Sea
      • Nuclear
        • Government trying to decide whether or not to invest in new plants
        • Without new plants, nuclear electricity share will fall from 23% in 2005 to 7% in 2020
      • Coal
        • Biggest employer at beginning of 2oth century
        • 1m workers to 9300 in 2005
        • 25.2m tonnes produced in 2004
        • Declinded because it is dirty and inflexible
        • 60.0m tonnes consumed in 2004
        • 19 coal powerstations in 2004, generating 33% of electricity
      • Hydroelectricity
        • Only about 0.8% of electricity from HEP
        • Most plants located in Scottish Highlands
        • Plans approved in 2005 to biuld 100MW station in Glendoe
        • If all rivers and streams in UK could be tapped, it would provide about 3% of enegy needs
      • Biomass
        • 97% of renewable energy in 2003
        • Most provided by landfill gases, and waste combustion
        • Accounted for 1.55% of electricity supply in 2003
      • Other renewable forms
        • Geothermal power plant in 1986
        • Total photovoltaic output was only 6MW
        • Two wave devices in Scotland, generating 1.25MW
      • Wind energy
        • Estimate of 7% of demand in 2010
        • Very expensive
        • Wind farm the size of Dartmoor would produce the same amount of energy as a power stations
      • Microgeneration
        • Solar panels and wind turbines are becoming more common
        • Could take considerable strain off national grid
        • Could provide 30-40% of needs by 2050
    • Mali
      • No fossil fuel resources
      • Fossil fuels have to be imported
      • Generation of grid electricity is twice as expensive as neighbouring countries
      • Imported petroleum accounts for 8% of the trade balance
      • 80% of needs are supplied by firewood or charcoal in rural areas
      • Firewood uses over 50m tons of forest every year
      • 900000 tonnes of wood cut for use in capital Bamako in 2006
      • Less than 12% of population has access to formal electricity
      • In rural areas, less than 1% have access to mains electricicty
      • Solar panels have been installed on 30 schools
      • Biofuels are being explored
      • Laws have been passed to protect forests


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